Gem Ndepụta Nkọwa

Gemology Ndepụta Nkọwa - Gemological Institute nke Cambodia Ndepụta Nkọwa. Gem Ndepụta Nkọwa. Ahịa Ndepụta Nkọwa

Abalone nkume pel

acha Baroque nkume pel emepụta site ihe oriri univalue mollusk nke nwere ntị ekara shei ịna ya multicolored nne-nke-pearl lining. Ndị a na-achọta America, New Zealand na Japanese mmiri. Ịdị spheroid, ha na-emekarị esisịt na ntị ma ọ bụ tooth- ekara

Banye

na-(eg, a umi) ma ọ bụ na-na ma ọ bụ nweta ume site radiant ume (eg, ìhè)

Absorption ụdịdị dị iche iche

ụkpụrụ nke ọchịchịrị vetikal edoghi, na ìgwè ndị agha, ma ọ bụ ebe (sara mbara absorption), hụrụ mgbe ìhè nke e-ebute site ná ma ọ bụ gosipụtara si a gemstone na-chụgara n'ime ya spektral components na-enyocha iji ngwá dị ka a spectroscope.

Adamantine

ịhụ luster

Adularescence

ndị e ji mara bluish-acha ọcha ma ọ Milky sheen (schiller) moonstone

Allochromatic

mgbe mgbanwe mmewere bụ ugbu nanị dị ka a obere adịghị ọcha na mkpuru ihe onwunwe, na ihe onwunwe bụ allochromatic (allo = ọzọ; chroma = agba)

Alluvium

n'ozuzu okwu ejikarị maka nkwụnye ego nke oké nkume irighiri (alluvial nkwụnye ego) nke e ebuga eru na mmiri na tọrọ ala na iyi, osimiri, iju mmiri larịị ma ọ bụ ọdọ akwa.

Amorphous

ịhụ na-abụghị crystalline

Anisotropic

ịhụ doubly Refractive

Archimedes ụkpụrụ

Archimedes ụkpụrụ na-ekwu na mgbe a ahu na-mikpuru na mmiri mmiri, mgbe ahụ gbagowe nzube nke mmiri mmiri na ahu bụ hà arọ nke mmiri mmiri obibi. (The mkpebi siri ike nke kpọmkwem nnukwu mpo site hydrostatic erikpu usoro dabeere na ụkpụrụ a)

Wuru nkume

mmadụ mere kristal na-enweghị eke counterpart (eg, na diamond simulants: strontium titanate na YAG)

Wuru ọgwụgwọ

nkwalite odi mma nke ọdịdị nke a umi site kpo oku, staining, mkpuchi, impregnation, irradiation ma ọ bụ laser-mkpọpu ala

Kpọkọta gemstones

ọ bụla mkpuru mejupụtara abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa akụkụ nke e sikwuo ma ọ bụ azọ ọnụ na-etolite otu nkume

Asterism

asterism bụ a echiche mmetụta, n'ozuzu anọ ma ọ bụ isii-rayed, site kwekọọ emep uta eri ma ọ bụ fibrous cavities na a nkume nke e bee en cabochon na inclusions dabeere yiri ihe-ọkiké ụgbọelu

Aventurescence

ike spangled ngosipụta nke ìhè si efere ma ọ bụ flakes nke ọzọ ịnweta esịne ke nkume (eg, ka hụrụ na aventurine iko, aventurine quartz, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))

Axis nke symmetry

otu n'ime ndị ọcha nke symmetry, ihe axis nke symmetry bụ ihe myiyi akara site etiti nke a crystal, banyere nke crystal nwere ike na-agba gburugburu ka na-ewetara ndị otu ihe ahụ anya 2, 3, 4 ma ọ bụ 6 ugboro otu zuru ezu adiana (ie , a yiri ihu enyene a yiri ọnọdụ, ihe karịrị otu ugboro na a zuru ezu adiana)

Baroque nkume pel

aha etinyere ib, ma eke na cultured, ọnya ma ọ bụ ahu otutu,

nke bụ oge ufodu na udi

Basalt

basalt, kasị nkịtị extrusive igneous nkume, bụ a gbara ọchịchịrị, ezi-na-grained nkume nnoo mebere nke ọchịchịrị feldspar na pyroxene (na ma ọ bụ na-enweghị olivine). E nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ nke iche nke na-nkewa dabere n'elu ọdịiche na udidi, Ọdịdị na ịnweta ọdịnaya

Biaxial nkume

na orthorhombic, monoclinic na triclinic usoro e nwere atọ crystal anyụike nke dị iche iche mgbalị. Ugboro abụọ refraction ga-eme ọtụtụ ntụziaka, ma a ga-enwe abụọ optic anyụike (ntụziaka nke otu refraction) na dị iche na nghazi ọ bụla iche iche mkpuru umu. mineral nke ndị a na usoro-mara dị ka biaxial. (Na orthorhombic usoro optic anyụike bụ ohiha-achọ na 'c' (ụkpụrụ vetikal axis), mgbe na monoclinic na triclinic e nweghị kpọmkwem mmekọrịta crystal anyụike.)

Birefringence

(na-ezo dị ka abụọ refraction / DR) birefringence bụ ego nke abụọ refraction nke onye anisotropic gemstone kwupụtara dị ka ihe dị iche n'etiti Refractive indices na kacha nkewa

Biwa nkume pel

na-abụghị nucleated cultured nkume pel (mgbe oval ma ọ bụ Baroque na udi na Japan) farmed gburugburu n'ikperé Ọdọ Mmiri Biwa na Japan. The nkume pel na-toro na nnukwu ọhụrụ mmiri mọsel site inserting obere iberibe mantle n'ime ahu nke mussel

Mmerụ

n'ozuzu okwu maka a oghom nke na-emetụta elu nke a mkpuru iche. A mmerụ a na-emekarị ụmụ mmadụ kpatara omume, ma mgbe ndị mkpuru a na-ebipụ ma ọ bụ mgbe ọ na-na-na-eyi na ọla. Scratches, olulu, na abrasions ndị kasị ahụkarị ụdị mmerụ

Ọnya nkume pel

nkume pel nke na-ekpuchi na otu akụkụ nanị site a nacreous oyi akwa nke toro n'elu ihe mbụ irritant na kọntaktị na mollusk shei. Mgbe ndị dị otú nkume pel na-amịpụtara, n'ógbè nke bụ na kọntaktị na shei bụ iferi nke nacre. Ntem a iferi n'akụkụ a na-emekarị larịị anya na-ezo site ọnọdụ

Mgbukepụ

mgbukepụ bụ mkpokọta nke ukwu nke internally gosipụtara ìhè na-laghachiri anya si gemstone. Alternatively ya nwere ike kwupụtara dika onwunwu (ndụ) nke a gemstone dị ka kpebisiri ike site ego nke ìhè gosipụtara azụ ka anya si azụ nke ndị mejupụtara ihe nkume

Brittleness

brittleness a kọwarala dị ka a adịghị ike na a gemstone nke n'agbanyeghị na ya ekweghị ekwe, eme ka ọ susceptible ka mgbaji ọkpụkpụ, mmebi (eg, okpomọkụ mesoo zircon)

Cat anya

ịhụ chatoyancy

Center nke symmetry

otu n'ime ndị ọcha nke symmetry, a center nke symmetry bụ ugbu mgbe ọ bụla ihu nke zuru okè crystal bụ diametrically abụghị a yiri ihu na n'akụkụ nke ọzọ nke crystal (ie, ihu niile nwere ihe ọzọ na ihu na yiri nke ahụ, na-abụghị na yiri)

Chatoyancy

a echiche mmetụta si dabeere yiri fibrous inclusions ma ọ bụ (cat anya) cavities. Ndị otu streak nke ìhè na-egosi na ikike angles ka ntụziaka nke inclusions na ọ na-kasị mma hụrụ n'okpuru otu efefe ìhè isi iyi na nkume na e bee en cabochon

Chelsea agba rater

ngwá esịnede a Nchikota nzacha, a na otú wuru na ọ na-enye ohere naanị abụọ warara ngalaba nke ụdịdị dị iche iche na-anya na site na ya: ihe ndị miri red (nso 690nm) na-acha odo odo green (nso 570nm). Ọ bụ uru na-egosi na ọnụnọ nke chrome ma ọ bụ cobalt na ụfọdụ bara nnukwu uru, maka nchọpụta nke (chrome) e ji esiji ákwà na nkume na abaharede ụfọdụ mkpuru ihe si ha nkịtị imitations. Echetara anyị: Jiri dị ka ịdọ aka ná ntị ịrịba ama naanị. Gosiri bụ dabere n'elu ndị ọzọ bịara

Chromophore

(agba? gị n'ụlọnga). Akụkụ nke molekul na bụ maka a compound si agba. Ọ bụ ugbu dị ka ihe dị oké mkpa constituent na chemical mejupụtara na idiochromatic nkume ma ọ bụ dị ka ihe accidentai adịghị ọcha na allochromatic nkume

Doo anya

okwu ji kọwaa ikwu nnwere onwe ọ bụla na internai nkwarụ ma ọ bụ irregularity (inclusions) na a mkpuru iche. The definition nwekwara ike-akp na-agụnye n'elu ntụpọ (blemishes) mgbe n'ịtụle doo anya ọkwa nke nkume

Agba ìgwè

Olee ihe enyemaka yiri ìgwè nke na agba hụrụ na elu nke kristal ma ọ bụ na internai owuwu nke nkume (indicative nke ibu N'ụzọ mere site iche dị na dị chemicals, liquids, okpomọkụ, nrụgide na ihe ndị ọzọ)

Agba na bara nnukwu uru

a visual nghọta nke mejuputara n'ime nke na-acha ọcha ìhè nwere ike iche (red, oroma, odo, green, acha anụnụ anụnụ, violet) nakwa dị ka sensashion-acha odo odo nke a na-bụghị dị na anyanwụ ụdịdị dị iche iche. Agba na-kọwara site hue, saturation na ụda. Ozu agba nke a gemstone na-ewepụtara ìhè site nke ọ na-hụrụ nakwa dị ka ịbụ ruru ka absorption nke ụfọdụ wavelengths nke anya ìhè. Agba nwekwara ike mere site dispersion, nnyonye anya nke ìhè na fluorescence

Agba zoning

agba zoning-amalite n'oge uto nke crystal ruru ekwekọghị kasịnụ nke adịghị. The ọdịiche na agba (ìgwè ma ọ bụ zones) na-ejikari hụrụ na-eso ẹdude crystal ihu

Agba? Ọcha

Nhọrọ absorption nke ìhè n'ihi na ọnụnọ nke mgbanwe ọcha (chrome, cobalt, ọla kọpa, vanadium, manganese, ígwè, nickel, titanium) na idiochromatic na allochromatic nkume

Kọmpat

kọmpat pụtara ihe ndị yiri ka oke na-etinyere karịsịa mgbe kristal egosi dịghị ihe ịrịba ama nke bughi ahụ (eg, fme-grained jadeite jed)

Mejupụtara gemstone

ịhụ kpọkọta gemstone

Conch nkume pel

pink nkume pel: nkume pel enwetara site na oké conch, a univalve mollusk hụrụ ụsọ oké osimiri nke Florida, Ọwara California na Mexico. Ndị a nkume pel na-ejikari pink (pink oroma ma ọ bụ na-acha ọcha) na agba na-ji a enweghị nacreous mkpuchi

Conchoidal

ịhụ mgbaji ọkpụkpụ

Kpọtụrụ m tamorphic

na recrystallization nke ịnweta ọdịnaya nke tupu ẹdude oké nkume ma ọ bụ nso kọntaktị mpaghara ruru ka ọnụnọ nke magmas

Kpọtụrụ ejima

a ụdị crystal twinning na nke ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu na-na kọntaktị tinyere a nkịtị ụgbọelu (ejima ụgbọelu). The abụọ n'akụkụ nke ndị dị otú crystal na-otú kọrọ na ọ bụrụ na otu akụkụ na-agba gburugburu site 180 Celsius (a ọkara n'aka) banyere ihe axis (ejima axis) mgbe ahụ abụọ halves ga-eme ka udi nke onye crystal. Kọntaktị ejima dị abụọ iche: otu kọntaktị ejima-ebe 2 halves nke a crystal na-agbara iji mere na ọ bụrụ otu ọkara na-agba gburugburu 180 Celsius banyere ụgbọelu nke sonyere, ọdịdị nke ndị nkịtị crystal na-enwetara; ugboro ugboro, polysynthetic ma ọ bụ lammelar ejima-ụdị crystal twinning gụnyere a usoro nke kọntaktị ejima mgbe ke nnọọ mkpa efere. Ndị a na-mere ndokwa na-abụghị nghazi ha ozugbo agbata obi (eg, dị na corundum na feldspar). Lee kwa interpenetrant ejima

Critical n'akuku

n'akuku nke omume ebe a ray nke ìhè nke na-ejegharị ejegharị site na optically denser ka rarer ọkara na-refracted na 90 ° ka nkịtị (ie, ọ skims elu nke abụọ media na kọntaktị). Cheta na: ihe ọ bụla ọzọ na-abawanye na nke a n'akuku nke omume ga-eme ka refracted ray na-atụgharị azụ n'ime mbụ na-ajụ ebe ọ ga-erube isi n'iwu nke echiche (ie, ọ ga-kpam kpam internally gosipụtara.)

Cryptocrystalline

(kaadị = zoro). Okwu e ji na-akọwa ihe onwunwe esịnede otu nnukwu ọnụ ọgụgụ nke obere kristal mgbe sub-microscopic akpụ ihe unbroken uka. The sub-microscopic crystal rụpụta mkpokọta nchịkọta nwere ike na-egosi amorphous ka gba ọtọ anya

Crystal

a crystal bụ a na ya edo siri ike na ihe nyere iwu internai atọmịk Ọdịdị na mpụga ụdị bounded site symmetrically ndokwa ụgbọelu (ewepụghị) ihu

Crystal ụdị

a crystal ụdị mejupụtara ail ndị ihu nke na-N'otu aka ahụ metụtara crystallographic anyụike (eg, pyramid, prism, pinacoid, dome)

Crystal àgwà

na crystal shapes (ụdị, gbakwunyere elu e ji mara) na nke mineral-emekarị-erukwa na-akpọ ha crystal àgwà

Crystal inclusions

crystal inclusions bụ amata ha nwere dịtụ angular nkuku na dịtụ ogologo n'ọnụ ya. Mkpumkpu n'ọnụ na ubé mechie iche-iche na-zutere na ruru reabsorption nke inclusions. (crystal inclusions-emekarị-egosi na enyemaka megide usu ndabere mgbe anya n'okpuru darkfield ọkụ. Ha nwere ike-enyocha site na iji gafere polars.)

Crystal symmetry

crystal symmetry na-ezo aka kwesịrị isi na ụkpụrụ nke atọmịk Ọdịdị. Ọ bụ kpọmkwem mmeputakwa (imekwa ọdịdị) nke yiri crystal ihu (n'ọnụ, nkuku) na-egosi na iwu esịtidem ndokwa nke umi.

Crystalline

crystalline ihe onwunwe site definition bụ ịnweta siri ike onye ion, atọm ma ọ bụ ụmụ irighiri mere ndokwa na-eme ihe n'usoro ejiji. Na omume, na okwu a na-eji na-akọwa bekee nwere mgbe Ọdịdị na directional Njirimara ma ọ bụchaghị mpụga geometric udi

Crystallographic anyụike

ndị a bụ myiyi edoghi nke ebighị ebi ogologo na-agba ọsọ site na

ezigbo crystal na ụfọdụ anya ntụziaka na ikwu na symmetry nke crystal. Ha irutu na etiti nke crystal na a mgbe a na-akpọ si. (Ha na-edoghi nke akwụkwọ site na nke nwere ike tụọ ikwu anya na ọchịchọ nke dị iche iche ihu.)

Cultured nkume pel

cultured nkume pel na-pearly formations kpamkpam ma ọ bụ ikpe mere

site aka nke ụmụ mmadụ n'ụlọnga n'ime ime nke elu mollusks. A na-emetụta cultured nkume pel ma na ma ọ bụ na-enweghị a ntọala

Ahu otutu nkume pel

a pearl nke kpụrụ n'ime ahu nke pearl mollusk na-spheroid ke udi

Dendritic Nsonye

osisi-dị ka ma ọ bụ akpaetu-dị ka mgbape ndochi (ebe inclusions nke dị iche iche ihe nwere ike fil a ezumike - a na ígwè oxide.)

Divitrify

ịnapụ nke yiri enyo luster na transluceny. (N'ihe banyere nke iko ngwaahịa akpọ meta jed - bụ site mmepe nke incipient crystallization)

Dichroscope

na dichroscope na-ngwá nke na-enye ohere pleochroic mmetụta nke mkpuru mineral na-hụrụ, abụọ na agba ma ọ bụ shades nke na agba na oge

Diffraction

na diffraction nke ìhè bụ a pụrụ iche n'ụdị nnyonye anya nke ìhè na nke na-acha ọcha ìhè na-agbajikwa elu (gbawara n'etiti) n'ime ya akụrụngwa na agba ka ìhè na-agabiga a obere aperture ma ọ bụ mgbe ìhè mmiri na ebili mmiri rue onu n'etiti dị iche iche refracting bekee (eg, play nke na agba hụrụ na oké ọnụ ahịa opal)

Dispersion

dispersion bụ nkewa (agbasa) nke na-acha ọcha ìhè n'ime spektral agba site refraction (nke ekwe nke ìhè) dị ka ìhè na-agabiga abụọ ọchịchọ ebupụta. Na bara nnukwu uru ọ na-emekarị kwuru na dị ka 'ọkụ'

Ugboro abụọ Refractive

anisotropic - mineral-egosi directional ngwa anya Njirimara (eg, nkume na tetragonal, hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic na triclinic usoro)

Akpa ụdịdị dị iche iche

okwu e ji maka dum nso nke wavelengths nke radiant ike ndị fọdụrụ n'ezinụlọ redio mmiri na ebili mmiri site kemgwucha obere w wavelengths

Ọcha nke symmetry

ọcha nke symmetry bụ n'ụzọ nke classifi-cation maka asaa crystal usoro. Ha bụ ngwaọrụ ka anyị nwee ike ikewapụ na-akọwa iche iche nke crystal udi. Ha na-agụnye a ụgbọelu nke symmetry, ihe axis nke symmetry na a center nke symmetry (lee ọkwụkwọ n'okpuru onye Ndepụta)

Eluvium

eluvial nkwụnye ego iso nke oké nkume irighiri (gravel) nke a eroded (weathered si) si usu oké nkume na-anọgide na situ (na ebe) na-enweghị emume njem na osimiri

Emit

inye ma ọ bụ si (eg, ìhè)

Enantiomorphism

ndị molekụla Ọdịdị nke quartz nke na-enye ịrị elu na ekpe na aka-nri-gburugburu uto nke quartz, na ya okirikiri polarization. (Cheta: The ọnyịnye nke obere auxillary ihu nke bụ ugboro ugboro anya na mpụga ụdị nyere aka chọpụta ekpe ma ọ bụ aka nri handedness nke crystal)

Enhancement

ịhụ wuru ọgwụgwọ

Epigenetic inclusions

biputere dịkọrọ ndụ inclusions. Ndị nke mere mgbe e guzobere usu crystal. A na-agụnye iche iche nke gbawatụrụ agbawa na ịnweta inclusions kpụrụ exsolution (eg, rutile silk na corundum); ghara ikwu mmanụ / opticon, wdg, remnants na mgbaji ọkpụkpụ jupụtara bara nnukwu uru.

Exsolution inclusions

ịhụ exsolved

Exsolved

na unmixing nke mineral. Ụfọdụ na abụọ nke mineral etolite siri ike ngwọta na elu okpomọkụ ma na-ejighị n'aka na ala okpomọkụ. Mgbe ndị a ajụkwa ji nwayọọ nwayọọ na otu ịnweta nwere ike-amanye mgbe usu Ọdịdị cools na contracts, n'ụzọ nkịtị squeezing adịghị n'ime ohere iputa oghere ebe ha crystallize (eg, rutile agịga (silk) na corundum)

Ikpochapu

mkpochapụ bụ na-anọghị nke ìhè na-alọghachi anya. Nke a na-akpata nkume na-egosi ọchịchịrị na-enweghị billiance

Akụkụ aha

faceted bara nnukwu uru nwere a okpueze (top òkè n'elu eriri), a table (etiti akụkụ nke ihe okpueze), a ọkiké (ngalaba nke nkume na kasị ukwuu perimeta ma ọ bụ mpụga ókè), a Pavilion (na ala akụkụ n'okpuru ihe-ọkiké ). Akụkụ ndị ọzọ nile nwere ike ịdị iche na ha size, ugboro ole ma ọ bụ ọbụna ịdị adị dabere na ọnwụ ịke eji. Ihe atụ, na ọkọlọtọ nzọụkwụ-bee (emerald ịkpụ) nkume ndị culet (obere akụkụ ke ukot nke Pavilion) na-anọchi a keel akara (ogologo akara inyịme tinyere etiti nke ala nke Pavilion)

Ụgha cleavage

ịhụ ngalaba

Nku Nsonye

a ụgbọelu nke nkeji cavities nke ejikari-egosi dị ka ìgwè nke ezi mkpanaka-dị ka ngalaba nke intercommunicating ọwa (na-emekarị mmiri mmiri jupụtara).

Fibrous

aha e nyere ihe onwunwe ebe constituent kristal bụ agịga ekara (eg, Asbestos, nephrite jed)

Mkpisiaka inclusions

ndị a nwere ike nwekwara ike maara dị ka agwọ ọrịa feathers na iso nke interconnecting netwọk nke mmiri mmiri-jupụta ọwa na ụmụ irighiri mmiri yiri a mkpisiaka. Abụkarị n'ihi nke ịnweta ngwọta nwayọọ nwayọọ nzacha n'ime a tupu ẹdude mgbape na ihe ugbua kpụrụ crystal, na-agwọ ndị fissure. Ndị ọzọ ọnọdụ ebe otú ahụ na atụmatụ nwere ike ime bụ n'oge okpomọkụ okpomọkụ ọgwụgwọ. Mkpịsị aka na-ahụkarị n'ebe mesoo rubies

Imecha

imecha na-ezo aka faceting àgwà nke mkpuru na-ekpe ikpe site ogo enwu, mgbe nile, na flatness nke ọ bụla e ji mara

Fluorescence

fluorescence bụ emission nke anya ìhè site gemstones na e gụrụ anya ma ọ bụ adịghị ahụ anya radiations nke mkpumkpu wavelength (elu ike)

Mgbaji ọkpụkpụ

mgbaji ọkpụkpụ bụ ihe oge ufodu mgbawa ma ọ bụ ezumike na a nkume

Gem

a dị oké ọnụ ahịa na nkume nke ụdị ọ bụla, bee na-egbu maramara n'ihi ịchọ mma (pearl bụ a ọwọrọiso wezụga ndị ikpeazụ chọrọ). A mkpuru site definition bụ otu na nwere mma, anwụ ngwa ngwa na ụkọ

Glass

okwu iko na etinyere bekee nke na-kere site agbaze na ngwa ngwa jụrụ nke ịnweta bekee, n'ihi na guzobere amorphous ihe onwunwe. Glass nwere ike ịbụ wuru (manmade, mgbe ụfọdụ, kwuru na dị ka mado) ma ọ bụ karịa adịkarịghị, eke eg, obsidian (mgbawa ugwu iko), tektites (-eche na-meteoric ikwommiri ngwaahịa)

Granite

konkiri bụ ìhè acha, Ntụ-grained intrusive igneous nkume mebere ukwuu n'ime ha nke quartz, feldspar na mica

Uto banding

Mkpa ọkụ na darker ìgwè na ogologo edoghi na akụkụ ndị na-eso bughi nlereanya nke ịnweta

Àgwà

ndị e ji mara udi nke a ịnweta akacha etịbe. Àgwà bụghị nanị na-agụnye mpụga ụdị ọtụtụ edise ke ịnweta kamakwa ahụkarị n'elu mmetụta dị ka nke ọma

Hackly

ịhụ mgbaji ọkpụkpụ

Halo Nsonye

crystal Nsonye gbara gburugburu a nchegbu mgbape (s). Ndị a nwekwara ike anya dị ka a urukurubụba na nku abụọ emanating si gụnyere crystal (nke na-abụkarị zircon)

Ekweghị ekwe

ekweghị ekwe bụ ike a ịnweta nwere iguzogide scratching (abrasion). Lee kwa Eshtemo si ọnụ ọgụgụ

Agwọ cracks

gwọọ cracks (cracks ma ọ bụ cleavages) ebe a mmiri mmiri banyere okpukpu na crystal toro azụ ọnụ. Ọtụtụ mgbe akụkụ ụfọdụ nke ọmụmụ na-tọrọ atọ na cavities na ọwa na-eme feathery ma ọ bụ akara mkpisiaka-dị ka ihe nakawa etu esi (mgbe ụfọdụ ígwè-ntụpọ)

Hue

hue na-ezo aka aha nke agba onwe ya: ahụ dị ọcha spektral sensations nke ọbara ọbara, oroma, odo, green, acha anụnụ anụnụ, violet na ọdịiche nke ndị a. Hue na-ezokwa aka sensashion nke odo odo (n'etiti acha uhie uhie na violet), nke na-ahụghị ke utịn ụdịdị dị iche iche

Hydrothermal

nkume tọrọ ala, na-emekarị ke akpatre nkebi nke igneous igba si magma ọgaranya mmiri na ndị ọzọ obodo bekee. The hydrothermal veins nke ịnweta ọgaranya ngwọta iyo site gaps na gbawatụrụ agbawa na sedimentary nkume na ụdị crystal lined cavities na nkume

Idiochromatic

mgbe mgbanwe mmewere bụ ihe dị oké mkpa constituent na a mkpuru ihe onwunwe, na mkpuru ihe onwunwe bụ idiochromatic (idio = onwe, chroma = agba)

Imikpu cell

obere iko cell maka nwere adabara liquids. Ụkpụrụ n'azụ na-eji ihe imikpu cell bụ na Refractive index nke mmiri mmiri bụ nkume, mfe ọ ga-abụ ịhụ n'ime nkume. Fọrọ nke nta ọ bụla colorless mmiri mmiri, ọbụna mmiri, ga-egbutu elu echiche, na-eme ka ị na-elele inclusions nnọọ mfe

Na situ

ihe onwunwe okosobode ke ọnọdụ ebe ọ mbụ e guzobere ma ọ bụ debe kwuru na ịchọta situ (n'ụzọ nkịtị na ebe)

Nsonye

n'ozuzu okwu maka ihe ọ bụla ntụpọ ma ọ bụ irregularity n'ime a mkpuru iche. Inclusions nwere ike ekewa atọ dị iche iche: siri ike-ma crystalline (eg, zircon na sapphire) ma ọ bụ ndị na-abụghị crystalline (eg, eke iko peridot) kwere omume. Cavities-ihe ndị a nwere ike na-etolite n'oge usu bara nnukwu uru ibu (isi inclusions), ma ọ e mesịrị (sekọndrị inclusions). Ma ụdị wee jupụta ọ bụla Nchikota mmiri mmiri, gas na ma ọ bụ siri ike. Ndị na abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa N'ụzọ na-akpọ ógbè multiphase. Uto phenomena-agba zoning na twinning na-ma ihe atụ nke ibu phenomena

Infrared

infrared n'aka n'okpuru acha uhie uhie na a nso nke radieshon-amalite na wavelengths na-abụghị ogologo karịa 700nm uhie ìhè. Infrared radieshon na-adịkarị mara dị ka okpomọkụ n'ihi na ọ na-amị a sensashion nke ịhụnanya mgbe ọ na-abia anyị Skip

Nnyonye anya

ebe abụọ ụzarị njem na otu ụzọ, ma nke na-adọ (nzọụkwụ), ibe egbochi ibe-eme ma ngụkọta ikpochapu nke ìhè ma ọ bụ tupu dominance nke otu ma ọ bụ ihe na agba

Nnyonye anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ

ndị a bụ ngwa anya mmetụta hụrụ mgbe abụọ Refractive mineral-ele ya anya site yiri ihu ke convergent okporo osisi nke ndị ekewasị ìhè. Ha imeli ihe ọmụma bara uru banyere ngwa anya agwa nke nkume

Interpenetrant ejima

a ụdị crystal twinning nke mmadụ abụọ na otú okokpon ọnụ na ha na-egosi na penetrated ibe (mgbe amị cross ma ọ bụ kpakpando nkume)

Iridescence

iridescence ma ọ bụ play nke na agba na-akọwa agba ma ọ bụ usoro nke agba emepụta site nnyonye anya ma ọ bụ diffraction mgbe ìhè na-apụta ìhè ma si mkpa fim ma ọ bụ site na pụrụ iche Ọdịdị nke dị oké ọnụ ahịa opal

Isomorphous nnọchi

na nnọchi nke otu chemical mmewere ihe ọzọ nke otu valency na chemical mejupụtara. Nke a na-obosara ọdịiche na anụ ahụ Njirimara nke ndị òtù nke usoro. Valency: nke yiri chemical ọdịdị na ionic okirikiri

Isotropic

ịhụ singly Refractive

Keshi cultured nkume pel

ndammana aa na-abụghị nucleated freshwater nkume pel nke na-etolite na a mollusk mgbe ọ na-laghachiri mmiri mgbe mwepụ nke a akuku nke na-abụghị nucleated cultured ib. Ndị a na-agaghị mgbagwoju anya na mmiri mkpụrụ pearis nke na-enwekarị ọtụtụ nta. The freshwater 'Keshi' na-na na na-akpọ ha n'ihi na ha N'otu aka ahụ na-adịghị toro site na wuru ntọala. Akpọ mgbe ụfọdụ ka 'seedless' nkume pel na-eme ka ihe dị iche na-abụghị nucleated. Lee kwa Biwa nkume pel

Keshi nkume pel (mmiri)

Japan oku mkpụrụ nkume pel 'Keshi' (poppies). Mkpakọrịta ebe a bụ n'etiti obere size nke poppy osisi na nnọọ obere ndammana kpụrụ nkume pel

Konoscope

a polariscope ruo eruo na a ike convergent oghere nke na-enyere ikwado ikiri ihe ndị na nnyonye anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ

Lamellae inclusions

mere site polysynthetic twinning. Nwere ike na-egosi dị ka blinds ma ọ bụ uzo azụ-akara. Ha nwekwara ike na-egosi na-ezukọ na angles (eg, na corundum ebe ntụziaka izute)

Lateritic Ona

n'ala ihe onwunwe (esịnede nkume iberibe na ahịhịa) nke na-isi ewepụtara decomposed basait (a ezi grained ọchịchịrị mgbawa ugwu nkume ọgaranya ígwè na magnesium, nke dị na-emeghe ka mmetụta nke chemical weathering na a igwe nke ebe okpomọkụ)

Luminescence

n'ozuzu okwu maka enye anya nke na-ahụ anya 'oyi' ìhè site a umi n'elu-enweta njuputa ike na otu ụdị ma ọ bụ ọzọ. Ise ụkpụrụ luminescent phenomena bụ: chemi-luminescence (n'ihi nke chemical mgbanwe), tribo-luminescence (emepụta site esemokwu), Thermo-luminescence (emepụta site okpomọkụ), photo¬luminescence (emepụta site anya ma ọ bụ adịghị ahụ anya radiations nke elu ume / mkpumkpu wavelength) na cathodoluminescence (results si excitation na elektrọn doo na a agụụ ụlọ)

Luster

luster bụ ukwu na àgwà nke ìhè na-gosipụtara si n'elu nke nkume. Ndị na-esonụ okwu na-eji na-akọwa gemstone lusters: dara: elu luster gosiri site opaque dara mineral. adamantine: elu n'elu reflectivity. vitreous: iko-dị ka luster ahụkarị nke a ọtụtụ n'ime bara nnukwu uru. resinous: ahụkarị luster nke resins (adụ na ala RI). waxy: fọrọ nke nta matte elu (-akpọ mgbe ụfọdụ kegriiz). kegriiz: ubé mmanu mmanu achọ dapụtara si agbasasị nke ìhè site a microscopically ike ike n'elu. pearly: luster nke pearl / nne-nke-pearl. silky: fibrous luster nke silk

Mabe (cultured) nkume pel

mejupụtara cultured ọnya nkume pel na nke mbụ ntọala e wepụrụ na dochie a nta bead sikwuo na, na a dome ekara mpempe mother- nke-pearl glued ya isi na-ekpuchi ebe kọrọ nacre

Magma

wụrụ awụ (mmiri mmiri) nkume

Nro

nro n'aka ịbụ ike nke na a na-akp ma ọ bụ ekara site na-eti na haama ma ọ bụ site nrụgide nke rollers

Mmadụ mere

a mmadụ mere ngwaahịa site definition bụ otu na e synthesized na a laabu. (synthesize bụ itinye ọnụ ma ọ bụ ikpokọta ọcha n'ime a mgbagwoju dum). Ọgwụgwụ N'ihi nwere ike ịbụ a sịntetik gemstone (ie, onye nke na eke counterpart) ma ọ bụ ihe na wuru gemstone (ie, onye nke nwere enweghị obi counterpart)

Massive

okwu e ji na-akọwa ihe onwunwe nke nwere anya internai Ọdịdị nke a crystal, ma nke na-adịghị egosi na eyi geometric ụdị. Nke a nwere ike esịnede otu (eg, bilie quartz) ma ọ bụ karịa crystal nkeji (eg, jadeite)

Mettalic

ịhụ luster

Metamict

okwu e ji ihe onwunwe nke tara ahụhụ a okpukpu-ala si a crystalline ka a nwere obere amorphous ala; nkịtị na mineral nwere redioaktivu ihe (eg, ala ụdị zircon)

Metamorphic nkume

metamorphic (n'ụzọ nkịtị, gbanwere na ụdị) nkume na-guzobere si tupu ẹdude nkume bụ isi ihe na ihe nke mgbali, okpomọkụ na / ma ọ bụ iwebata ọhụrụ chemical bekee

Metric carat (CT)

otu metric carat = otu ụzọ n'ụzọ ise nke gram (0.20gr) ma ọ bụ 200 milligrams (mg). A metric carat bụ unit nke arọ maka ail gemstones na cultured ib. The arọ na-kwupụtara abụọ ntụpọ ebe na decimals na-emekarị loosely akpọ 'ihe', ie, 1 metric carat = 100 ihe

Mikroskopu

ihe ngwa anya ngwá esịnede a Nchikota anya m nke na-amịpụta a uku onyinyo nke ihe. Ụfọdụ ihe ndị ka mkpa ojiji nke magnification: Nsonye ọmụmụ (eke vs. mmadụ mere; mode nke guzobere / crystal ibu); n'elu nnyocha (àgwà nke ịkpụ (symmetry), Polish (ọnọdụ nke na-emenye, firemarks); nchọpụta nke ọtụtụ ihe mejupụtara nkume; njirimara nke wuru agwọ ọrịa; ịchọpụta vulnerability mmebi (eg, ọnụnọ nke mgbaji ọkpụkpụ na / ma ọ cleavage); ịchọpụta na ibawanye (SR vs .DR, nwekwara ike na-egosi ego nke birefringence)

Ịnweta

a ịnweta bụ a ndammana aa inorganic umi inwe a chemical mejupụtara na nke anụ ahụ Njirimara nke bụ mgbe nile n'ime warara ókè. Ya Ọdịdị bụ na-emekarị crystalline

Monochromatic ìhè

monochromatic ìhè bụ ìhè nke otu wavelength naanị. Ọkọlọtọ odo monochromatic ìhè ji mee ihe maka Refractometer nha na-ewepụtara a sodium vepo oriọna. Nke a n'ezie mejupụtara abụọ nnọọ anya spaced emission edoghi, onye pụtara uru bụ 589.3nm

Multiphase inclusions

inclusions na nwere ike ịnwe mmiri mmiri na gas na / ma ọ kristal

Nacre

a secretion mepụtara site na mantle nke ụfọdụ mollusks nke Nleta iridescent n'ígwé nke ma ndị pearl na nne-nke-pearl elu n'ime mollusk shei. Nacre mejupụtara crystalline carbonate nke wayo na organic ihe onwunwe na-akpọ conchiolin

Namometers (nm)

unit nke mmesho maka mkpumkpu wavelengths nke akpa ụdịdị dị iche iche (radiant ike). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth akụkụ nke a millimeter (1 / 1,000,000 nm) eg, anya ìhè dara n'etiti 700nm (red) na 400nm (violet)

Native ịkpụ

okwu e ji maka a ịke nke ịkpụ họọrọ kacha ibu njigide. Ndị a miri emi ịkpụ nkume na nnukwu pavilions mgbe chọrọ

recutting bịaruo mma n'ike-n'ike

Ọjọọ crystal

cavities n'ime mkpuru inwe a crystalline udi. Ndị a cavities e kere mgbe ụfọdụ ebe na-eto na ngwa karịa ndị ọzọ ebe, akpụ na kpuchikwara a adabaghi ​​ma ọ bụ ebe mbụ crystal Nsonye etisasịwo si (ọjọọ kristal mgbe egosi Mkpa ọkụ ka ha ọbịa n'okpuru darkfield ìhè)

Ọjọọ Nsonye

a na-ezighị ezi Nsonye nwere ike ịbụ gas ọ bụ mmiri mmiri jupụtara ma ọ bụ na-ebu obere siri ike Nsonye (lee kwa ọjọọ crystal)

Na-ezighị ezi na-agụ

ma ọ bụrụ na nkume n'okpuru ule na a refractometer nwere R.1 n'elu nso nke ngwá, ọ dịghị onyinyo onu ga-hụrụ (ma e wezụga nke kọntaktị mmiri mmiri)

Non-crystalline

mineral na ngwaọrụ ndị ọzọ e kwuru na a na-abụghị crystalline ma ọ bụ amorphous (n'ụzọ nkịtị, na-enweghị ụdị) mgbe ha Jack ihe n'usoro internai atọmịk Ọdịdị na a geometrically mgbe ya dị (eg, na ịnweta bekee, opal na iko, nakwa dị ka organic ihe)

Non-acha ọcha ìhè

na-abụghị na-acha ọcha ìhè (ie, acha) a kọwara na okwu nke ya hue (ie, agba nke ya tupu kasị wavelength), saturation (omimi ma ọ bụ ike nke kasị agba) na ụda (ndo-ìhè ka ọchịchịrị)

Nkịtị

na Gbasara Anya ail angles bụ ụfọdụ si nkịtị, ihe myiyi akara mmasị na ikike angles (90 ebe ndị ray-abia elu ma ọ bụghị site n'elu onwe ya

Optic axis

a direction nke otu refraction n'ime ihe n'ụzọ doubly Refractive crystal a maara dị ka ihe optic axis

Optic agwa

ịhụ optic ọdịdị

Optic ọgụgụ okirikiri

a iko okirikiri ruo eruo a obere mkpanaka nke-eme dị ka a condensing oghere aka mkpebi nnyonye anya ihe nakawa etu esi hụrụ tinyere ihe optic axis na anisotropic ihe onwunwe

Optic ọdịdị

optic ọdịdị nke a ịnweta: mineral na-ekewa n'ime uniaxial, biaxial na isotropic (optic agwa). Uniaxial na biaxial mineral na-n'ihu subdivided n'ime ndị nke bụ optically nti na ndị nke na-optically ọjọọ (optic ịrịba ama)

Optic ịrịba ama

ịhụ optic ọdịdị

Optical njupụta

ngwa anya njupụta bụ mgbagwoju onwunwe nke demonstates onwe ya na selata nke ìhè. (lee kwa refraction)

Organic ngwaahịa

organic ngwaahịa ndị ihe mepụtara site na ọrụ nke ndụ ntule

Orient (nke pearl)

na iridescent n'elu sheen nke mkpuru pearl na nne-nke-pearl. Ọ na-mere site na nnyonye anya nke ìhè na mkpa fim (mkpa efere nke nacreous oyi akwa) na site diffraction si ezi n'ọnụ nke efere

Oriental nkume pel

eji nke a okwu bụ nanị akọwa eke nkume pel dị na sait mmiri mollusks nke Peasia Gulf. Otú ọ dị, ọ dịla ihe n'ozuzu ahia omenala klas ail saltwater eke nkume pel dị ka Oriental

Okwu Mmechi Umu

ngalaba bụ a breakage na etịbe tinyere a ụgbọelu nke adịghị ike, kama tinyere ụgbọ elu Ẹbiet crystal ihu, ma ọ bụ na o kwere omume

crystal chere ihu, dị ka cleavage (ọ na-mara dị ụgha cleavage)

Pearl ọka

na pearl ọka bụ ụkpụrụ unit maka pearl erikpu 1 ọka = 0.25 carat (1 CT = 4grains)

Nkume pel

nkume pel na-eke formations secreted mmadụ na mberede na-enweghị enyemaka nke mmadụ ọ bụla gị n'ụlọnga, n'ime ime mollusks. Ha na-esịnede ihe organic umi (a scleroprotein aha ya bụ conchiolin) na nke calcium carbonate (na-emekarị n'ụdị aragonite) mere ndokwa na concentric n'ígwé, outermost nke na-akasị ndị nacreous

Pearly

ịhụ luster

Pegmatites

igneous nkume nke Ntụ uru mgbe nwere obere mineral, gụnyere nnukwu kristal nke gemstones (eg, beryl, chrysoberyl, feldspar, quartz, spessartite garnet)

Phosphorescence

phosphorescence bụ na mmetụta na-egbu oge fluorescence (ie, ọ bụ ihe afterglow). Ọ bụ iso emission nke anya ìhè mgbe isi iyi nke meekwa radieshon akwụsịwo

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence bụ a mkpokọta okwu maka fluorescence na phosphorescence. Ọ bụ mmetụta gosipụtawo site na ụfọdụ ihe ndị na-amị anya ìhè n'elu na-gụrụ obere wavelength radieshon (eg, akpa radiations na-ahụ anya (-acha anụnụ anụnụ), ultraviolet na x-ray akụkụ nke ụdịdị dị iche iche)

Pinpoints

obere ahụ hụrụ dị ka inclusions. Mgbe ndị a nọ na ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu ha nwere ike kọwara dị ka a igwe-ojii na nghọta nke nkume nwere ike isi

Placer nkwụnye ego

placer nkwụnye ego iso nke elu kasịnụ nke bara uru mineral nke elu kpọmkwem nnukwu mpo (na anwụ ngwa ngwa) nke kpụrụ weathering nke ndị nne na nna oké nkume na, ọtụtụ mgbe, ekemende e ebuga iyi ma ọ bụ ife edinam

Ụgbọelu nke symmetry

otu n'ime ndị ọcha nke symmetry; a ụgbọelu nke symmetry bụ ihe myiyi ụgbọelu nke na-ekewa a ahu abụọ n'akụkụ nke mere na onye ọ bụla akụkụ bụ gosipụtara (mirror) onyinyo nke ọzọ so (ie, akụkụ nke ọ bụla bụ kpọmkwem inverse counterpart nke ọzọ)

Plastics

a n'ozuzu okwu maka a ọnụ ọgụgụ nke organic mmadụ mere bekee (na-emekarị a resin dabeere polima) nke nwere ike extruded ma ọ bụ kpụzie okpomọkụ na / ma ọ bụ nrụgide

Play nke na agba

okwu play nke na agba na-akọwa usoro nke agba hụrụ mgbe ìhè na-apụta ìhè si mkpa fim ma ọ bụ site na-egosi lattice-dị ka Ọdịdị nke dị oké ọnụ ahịa opal. Ọ na-emepụta site diffraction (n'inyawa elu nke na-acha ọcha ìhè n'ime ya akụrụngwa na agba dị ka ìhè na-agabiga a obere aperture) nke bụ a pụrụ iche n'ụdị nke nnyonye anya nke ìhè

Pleochroism

pleochroism (n'ụzọ nkịtị, ọtụtụ acha) bụ n'ozuzu okwu ji kọwaa dị iche iche directional agba nke nwere ike ike hụrụ na ụfọdụ acha nkume na kewaa ìhè (ie, na-doubly refracting) ruru ha esịtidem crystal Ọdịdị. Ọ na-agụnye dichroism (abụọ acha) na trichroism (atọ acha)

Polariscope

na polariscope bụ ngwá esịnede abụọ nkeji maka mmepụta nke ụgbọelu ekewasị ìhè ndokwa na a n'usoro n'usoro ogbo n'etiti ha. Ngwaọrụ ule naanị ma ma ọ bụ ihe onwunwe bụ singly ma ọ bụ doubly Refractive

Polariscope Jeremaya mere

singly Refractive-onwunwe-anọgide ọchịchịrị ofụri a 360 Celsius n'aka. Ọ bụrụ na ihe dị n'okpuru internai nje ọ pụrụ egosi anomalous (ụgha) abụọ refraction (ADR), na-emekarị n'ụdị wavy ìgwè ma ọ bụ oge ufodu patches. Ugboro abụọ Refractive-nkume bee si otu crystal anọ ọnọdụ nke ìhè na anọ ọnọdụ nke ọchịchịrị. Crystalline aggregates ma ọ bụ kpamkpam gụnyere DR ihe onwunwe pụrụ iyi ail ìhè nile a 360 Celsius n'aka. Nnyonye anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ-na ikpe nke DR ihe onwunwe, ma ọ bụrụ na ọnọdụ ndị ziri ezi na ihe na nnyonye anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ a kwuru, ọ dịkwa ike iji chọpụta ma nkume bụ uniaxial ma ọ bụ biaxial. (optic ịrịba ama-ozugbo ọ hụrụ na nnyonye anya ọnụ ọgụgụ, ọ bụ mgbe ahụ na o kwere omume iji chọpụta ma nkume bụ ebughi na enyemaka nke

ngwa efere ọnọ n'ụzọ pụrụ iche n'ihi na nzube)

Polycrystalline

mineral nke bụ aggregates nke obere kristal na-akpọ ógbè polycrystalline. Ndị a dị nta kristal nwere ike ghọtara na iji magnification, na mgbe ụfọdụ site anya naanị (eg, fọrọ nke nta ail jadeite jed)

Polysynthetic ejima

ịhụ lammelar ejima

Potch (nkịtị opal)

Milky ihe onwunwe kọrọ play nke na agba, emi esịnede silica ngalaba ndị na-ahaghị size si otú na-eme ka ìhè na--agbasasịkwa kama diffracted

Protogenetic inclusions

tupu ẹdude inclusions: ndị nke nọ ugbu tupu usu crystal malitere na-etolite ma na-etinye obi gị dum 'njikere mere' n'ime Judas (eg, siri ike ahụ na obere kristal. ha na-irregularly strewn ofụri ma na-na-adịghị metụtara usu Crystal Ọdịdị

Pseudomorph

a pseudomorph (ụgha ụdị) bụ ịnweta nke na-ewe ụdị (udi) nke ọzọ ịnweta (ma ọ bụ organic umi) n'ihi okpomọkụ na / ma ọ bụ nrụgide ma ọ bụ chemical usoro, eg, tiger anya (quartz nnọchi nke crocidolite, ihe Asbestos ịnweta); osisi agate (a quartz nnọchi nke osisi)

Echiche

echiche bụ na nloghachi site a n'elu (ma internai ma ọ bụ mpụga) nke ụfọdụ nke ìhè nke dara na na elu. Lee kwa Snell iwu

Refraction

refraction bụ mgbanwe direction na nke ìhè na-aga mgbe ọ na-aga site n'otu media ọzọ nke dị iche iche ngwa anya njupụta (ma e wezụga mgbe na-egbu ndị nkịtị elu nke abụọ media na 90 Celsius). Dị ka ìhè na-aga site a rarer ka a denser ajụ (eg, si ikuku a nkume) ọ bụ kpebisiri kwupụta nkịtị, ọzọ dị ka ọ na-aga site a denser ka a rarer ajụ ọ na-kpudo efep nkịtị. Optical njupụta bụ mgbagwoju onwunwe nke na-egosi onwe ya na selata nke ìhè. Lee kwa Snell iwu

Refractive index (RI)

na RI bụ ihe dị mfe ruru atụnyere ọsọ nke ìhè na ikuku na-ọsọ nke ìhè na a nyere ọkara. Ọkọlọtọ eji maka atụ Refractive index bụ ikuku (nditịm a agụụ); si otú ahụ RI nke ikuku na-atụle ga 1.00

Regional metamorphic

na recrystallization nke ịnweta ọdịnaya nke tupu ẹdude nkume na ụba okpomọkụ (700 Celsius -2000 ° C) na nrụgide

Ikwu njupụta

Lee kpọmkwem nnukwu mpo (SG)

Mmapụta wavelengths

mmapụta wavelengths ndị wavelengths bụghị etinye obi gị dum site ihe onwunwe nke ikpokọta ka na-enye anyị perc-eived agba nke ihe

Resinous

Lee luster

Rock

a nkume mejupụtara ịnweta ahụ nke emewo ma ọ bụ sikwuo ọnụ site chemical Filiks ma ọ bụ e bonded ọnụ site okpomọkụ ma ọ bụ nrụgide

Saturation

na-ezo aka na àgwà ma ọ bụ ike nke na agba hụrụ na brilliancy mgbukepụ nke uzo faceted nkume

Schiller

Lee sheen

Scintillation

sparkle; inye anya nke mkpụmkpụ, na-egbuke egbuke mgbukepụ nke ìhè

Sectile

sectile na-ezo aka ihe ikike nke na-peeled site mma na a ire ụtọ ịkpụ

Sedimentary nkume

ndị kpụrụ Mee elu nke ihe onwunwe (sediments) nke sitere anụ ahụ na chemical ndakpọ nke tupu ẹdude nkume na ụwa elu

Mkpụrụ nkume pel

nnọọ obere nkume pel (erughị v. ọka / ruru. 2mm) na-ndammana guzobere ke adụ anụ ahụ nke mollusk ka a N'ihi nke mbuso agha nke ájá nke, free sere n'elu àkwá, nje ma ọ bụ ndị ọzọ na mba ozu. Mkpụrụ nkume pel ndị na-emekarị oge ufodu na ewepụghị, ma mgbe obere gburugburu ndị na-achọta ha, ha na-iche si maka ojiji na ọla. Lee kwa Keshi nkume pel

Nhọrọ absorption

nhọrọ absorption nke ìhè bụ suppression ma ọ bụ absorption nke ụfọdụ wavelengths si ìhè agafe ihe ma ọ bụ gosipụtara anya ya elu. Agba nke ihe onwunwe na-esi ndị fọdụrụ (mmapụta) wavelengths na iru anya

Sheen (ma ọ bụ schiller)

sheen bụ a akachia ma ọ bụ asị ibe (gbasaa) echiche mmetụta mere site ìhè na-gosipụtara site inclusions ma ọ bụ bughi atụmatụ n'ime nkume. The okwu na-agụnye chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence na play nke na agba na opal)

Silk (Nsonye)

a usoro nke ezi yiri bụ (ugboro ugboro rutile)

Single Refractive

nakwa kwuru na dị isotropic. mineral nke igosipụta otu ngwa anya Njirimara na ail ntụziaka (eg, nkume cubic usoro na amorphous onwunwe)

Snell iwu nke refraction

mgbe a ìhè ray-aga site na otu ọkara n'ime ọzọ e nwere anya ruru n'etiti enweghị nke n'akuku nke omume na-enweghị nke n'akuku nke refraction. Ihe ahụ merenụ ray, na refracted ray na nkịtị (na n'ókè nke omume) bụ ail na otu ụgbọelu. The mgbe nile ruru n'etiti n'akuku nke omume na refraction nke abụọ ọ bụla media na ngwa anya kọntaktị a na-akpọ site Snell na Refractive index (RI)

South Oké Osimiri nkume pel

ibu cultured ib, cultured na ọlaọcha-lipped pearl oysters na a dayameta nke 12 ma ọ bụ ọbụna 16mm. Ndị a nnukwu ọcha nkume pel akwụ aha South Oké Osimiri n'ihi na ha na mbụ mepụtara site na Japanese na Microne-sia na Indonesia. Taa ndị a nkume pel na-ọzọ ugboro ugboro na-emepụta Australia na Burma, na Indonesia, na Philippines, Papua New Guinea na Thailand adịrughị mkpa isi mmalite. Ka ụbọchị e nwebeghị ihe ịga nke ọma wuru ẹtọ collection nke ọla-ọcha lipped pearl oysters, nke pụtara na ọkọnọ nke nne oysters dị ụkọ na ahịa ya elu

Specific ike ndọda (SG)

na SG ma ọ bụ ikwu njupụta nke a ihe onwunwe bụ ruru n'etiti arọ nke a umi na ibu ibu nke ihe hà olu nke dị ọcha mmiri na 4 ° C (mmiri si kacha njupụta) na na ọkọlọtọ ikuku mgbali. SG ihe jikọrọ ya na chemical mejupụtara nke ihe nakwa dị ka ofu-atọmịk bonding (na mmetụta, ọ na-enwe mmetụta ọ bụghị nanị site atọmịk arọ nke dị iche iche akụrụngwa ọcha kamakwa n'ụzọ nke na atọm na-enịm ọnụ)

Spectroscope

ngwá nke kewapuru a ray nke ìhè n'ime ya constituent wavelengths ma ọ bụ ụdịdị dị iche iche na agba site n'ọnụ a prism ma ọ bụ diffraction ji kpachie oghere. The spectroscope-enye ohere otu ịhụ nke kpọmkwem ngalaba (edoghi ma ọ bụ ìgwè ndị agha) ma ọ bụ ebe (sara mbara absorption) nke na-acha ọcha ìhè na-etinye obi gị dum site a gemstone site dispersing ma ọ bụ na-agbasa si mmapụta wavelengths nke e-ebute site ná ma ọ bụ gosipụtara si nkume n'okpuru ule (bụghị ail nkume egosi a ụdịdị dị iche iche na ọ bụghị ail spectrums hụrụ bụ diagnostic ma absorption ìgwè pụrụ igosi na agba? gị n'ụlọnga ma ọ bụ ọnụnọ nke ụfọdụ ọcha)

Splintery

ịhụ mgbaji ọkpụkpụ

Symmetry

symmetry na-ezo aka mgbe nile ma ọ bụ itule nke udi nke mkpuru ma na ihu-elu ọnọdụ na profaịlụ

Syngenetic inclusions

dịkọrọ ndụ inclusions esịnede bekee nke na-adade n'otu oge dị ka usu crystai (eg, ịnweta solids; liquids na cavities ma na-agwọ cracks; zonal ìgwè; mmiri mmiri inclusions; metụtara nke ibu dị ka agba zoning na ejima guzobere. E nwere ugboro ugboro ihe nyere iwu intergrowth n'etiti syngenetic inclusions na usu crystal mere na abụọ nwere ike ibu a bughi mmekọrịta achịkwa crystallographic iwu

Sịntetik gemstones

a sịntetik ngwaahịa nwere otu chemical mejupụtara, atọmịk Ọdịdị na anụ ahụ Njirimara dị ka ya eke counterpart (eg, sịntetik emerald, sịntetik corundum, wdg)

Mkpebi siri

mkpebi siri ma ọ bụ ike bụ ndị na-eguzogide a mkpuru ka agbasa ma ọ bụ agbajikwara. Ọ na-metụtara mineral ike banye ịtụnanya na-enweghị emeghasịkwa nke internai Ọdịdị. Okwu zutere na na nke a na-agụnye kenkuwa, sectile, nro, mgbanwe na-agbanwe

Mkpa fim

anya n'okpuru gosipụtara ìhè ndị a mkpa fim nwere iridescent ọdịdị ahụkarị nke a mkpa oyi akwa mmanụ na mmiri ma ọ bụ na multicolored elu nke a ncha afụ

Atọ na-adọ Nsonye

a mmiri mmiri-jupụta uji eze nwere afụ na a crystal

Ụda

ụda na-ezo aka ikwu lightness ma ọ bụ ọchịchịrị aghọta (ma nke a hue ma ọ bụ nke na-acha ọcha na-nwa)

Total esịtidem echiche

ngụkọta esịtidem echiche etịbe ebe a, ray nke ìhè agafe si a denser ka a rarer ọkara na n'akuku ukwuu karịa oké egwu n'akuku bụ laghachiri denser ajụ ebe ọ na-erube isi n'iwu nke echiche

Ike

ịhụ mkpebi siri

Transition ọcha

aha etinyere ụfọdụ dara ọcha nke ruru ha atọmịk Ọdịdị, mmadụ na nhọrọ absorption nke ìhè na idiochromatic na allochromatic nkume. Ha na-chrome, cobalt, ọla kọpa, vanadium, manganese, ígwè, nickel na titanium

Ebunye

ruo (eg, ìhè) site na otu ọkara ọzọ; ka O zipụ (eg, a mgbaàmà) ma ọ bụ zipu on (e..g., site onye ọzọ)

Nghọta

nnwere onwe na nke ìhè na-ebugharị ma ọ bụ ebute site ná site a nkume. The dị iche iche degrees nke nghọta na-nyere dị ka: uzo (TP) -nke uzo ihe na-egosipụta na-amịkọrọ a obere ego nke ìhè nke dara na ya, ma na-enye ohere kasị gabiga. Ihe anya site na nkume na-egosi doro anya na iche na ya. Sub-uzo (S-TP) -nke bukwanu ego nke ìhè na-ebute site ná site nkume, ma naanị na ndepụta nke ihe ihe na n'akụkụ nke ọzọ nke nkume na-apụghị ike oké. Sub-translucent (S-TL) -only a nnọọ obere ego nke ìhè nwere ike gabiga mkpuru na mkpa n'ọnụ ya. Opaque (0) -ail nke ìhè nke dara jidesie ihe opaque ihe a na ma gosipụtara ma ọ bụ etinye obi gị dum. Ọ dịghị ìhè-agabiga ihe onwunwe, ọbụna na mkpa n'ọnụ ya.

Treacle Nsonye

a okpomọkụ-efegharị efegharị ma ọ bụ roiled mmetụta-wisps na swirls nke na agba

Ejima crystal

a ejima crystal bụ a crystal nke a na-esịnede abụọ halves nke otu crystal ma ọ bụ abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa kristal nke otu umu nke nwere kpọmkwem crystallographic mmekọrịta ibe na emewo ọnụ a symmetrical n'ụzọ (lee kọntaktị ejima na interpenetrant ejima)

Abụọ na-adọ Nsonye

a mmiri mmiri-jupụta uji eze nwere afụ ma ọ bụ a crystal

Ultraviolet (UV)

ultraviolet pụtara karịrị violet. A nso nke radieshon-amalite na wavelengths na-mkpumkpu karịa 400nm nke violet ìhè

Uniaxial nkume

na hexagonal, trigonal na tetragonal crystal usoro e nwere otu optic axis (direction nke otu refraction): mineral nke ndị a na usoro-mara dị ka uniaxial (na uniaxial nkume ndị optic axis bụ ihe yiri ka ndị isi vetikal 'c' axis)

Unit cell

unit cell nke crystal Ọdịdị nke bụ nta akụkụ nke a crystal nke ka nwere ndị e ji mara Njirimara nke crystal na-akpọ ógbè a unit cell. N'ụzọ nke ndị unit mkpụrụ ndụ na-stacked site nne ọdịdị na-ekpebi ndị mpụga ọdịdị nke crystal

Ákwà Nsonye

ịhụ nku Nsonye

Visible ìhè

anya ìhè bụ ụdị nke radiant ike nke na-enye ịrị elu nke sensashion nke n'anya. Ọ bụla wavelength nke akpa radieshon ahụ bụ mkpokọta n'etiti 400nm na 700nm bụ anya ka mmadụ anya dị ka ìhè

Vitreous

ịhụ luster

Wavelength

a wavelength a kọwarala dị ka anya n'etiti abụọ consecutive ọnụ ọnụ nke na-efegharị efegharị

Waxy

ịhụ luster

White ìhè

acha ọcha ìhè (mbuaha ìhè) na-emi esịnede ihe dị hà ngwakọta nke nile na agba ma ọ bụ wavelengths na-eme ka anya ụdịdị dị iche iche (red, oroma, odo, green, acha anụnụ anụnụ na violet). Agba nke ìhè dịgasị na-adabere n'elu wavelength. Red mmiri na ebili mmiri nwere ndị fọdụrụ n'ezinụlọ wavelengths (700 + nm) na a na-ebelatakarị site na ụdịdị dị iche iche na-Violet wavelengths, nke nwere nke kasị nso (400nm-banyere 1 / 4 ogologo nke red ụzarị)

Ohere

uzo ebe nke ala agba osisi ike mere site ìhè leakage nke kwe ndabere n'azụ nkume a na-hụrụ (na-agụ-site mmetụta)

Zircon okirikiri ọkụ n'isi

ịhụ okirikiri ọkụ n'isi Nsonye

Zonal striae

ịhụ agba ìgwè

njehie: Ọdịnaya a na-echebe !!