Gemology okwunkowa

Abalone nkume pel
acha Baroque nkume pel emepụta site ihe oriri univalue mollusk nke nwere ntị ekara shei ịna ya multicolored nne-nke-pearl lining. Ndị a na-achọta America, New Zealand na Japanese mmiri. Ịdị spheroid, ha na-emekarị esisịt na ntị ma ọ bụ tooth- ekara
Banye
na-(eg, a umi) ma ọ bụ na-na ma ọ bụ nweta ume site radiant ume (eg, ìhè)
Absorption ụdịdị dị iche iche
ụkpụrụ nke ọchịchịrị vetikal edoghi, na ìgwè ndị agha, ma ọ bụ ebe (sara mbara absorption), hụrụ mgbe ìhè nke e-ebute site ná ma ọ bụ gosipụtara si a gemstone na-chụgara n'ime ya spektral components na-enyocha iji ngwá dị ka a spectroscope.
Adamantine
ịhụ luster
Adularescence
ndị e ji mara bluish-acha ọcha ma ọ Milky sheen (schiller) moonstone
Allochromatic
mgbe mgbanwe mmewere bụ ugbu nanị dị ka a obere adịghị ọcha na mkpuru ihe onwunwe, na ihe onwunwe bụ allochromatic (allo = ọzọ; chroma = agba)
Alluvium
n'ozuzu okwu ejikarị maka nkwụnye ego nke oké nkume irighiri (alluvial nkwụnye ego) nke e ebuga eru na mmiri na tọrọ ala na iyi, osimiri, iju mmiri larịị ma ọ bụ ọdọ akwa.
Amorphous
ịhụ na-abụghị crystalline
Anisotropic
ịhụ doubly Refractive
Archimedes ụkpụrụ
Archimedes ụkpụrụ na-ekwu na mgbe a ahu na-mikpuru na mmiri mmiri, mgbe ahụ gbagowe nzube nke mmiri mmiri na ahu bụ hà arọ nke mmiri mmiri obibi. (The mkpebi siri ike nke kpọmkwem nnukwu mpo site hydrostatic erikpu usoro dabeere na ụkpụrụ a)
Wuru nkume
mmadụ mere kristal na-enweghị eke counterpart (eg, na diamond simulants: strontium titanate na YAG)
Wuru ọgwụgwọ
nkwalite odi mma nke ọdịdị nke a umi site kpo oku, staining, mkpuchi, impregnation, irradiation ma ọ bụ laser-mkpọpu ala
Kpọkọta gemstones
ọ bụla mkpuru mejupụtara abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa akụkụ nke e sikwuo ma ọ bụ azọ ọnụ na-etolite otu nkume
Asterism
asterism bụ a echiche mmetụta, n'ozuzu anọ ma ọ bụ isii-rayed, site kwekọọ emep uta eri ma ọ bụ fibrous cavities na a nkume nke e bee en cabochon na inclusions dabeere yiri ihe-ọkiké ụgbọelu
Aventurescence
ike spangled ngosipụta nke ìhè si efere ma ọ bụ flakes nke ọzọ ịnweta esịne ke nkume (eg, ka hụrụ na aventurine iko, aventurine quartz, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))
Axis nke symmetry
otu n'ime ndị ọcha nke symmetry, ihe axis nke symmetry bụ ihe myiyi akara site etiti nke a crystal, banyere nke crystal nwere ike na-agba gburugburu ka na-ewetara ndị otu ihe ahụ anya 2, 3, 4 ma ọ bụ 6 ugboro otu zuru ezu adiana (ie , a yiri ihu enyene a yiri ọnọdụ, ihe karịrị otu ugboro na a zuru ezu adiana)
Baroque nkume pel
aha etinyere ib, ma eke na cultured, ọnya ma ọ bụ ahu otutu,
nke bụ oge ufodu na udi
Basalt
basalt, kasị nkịtị extrusive igneous nkume, bụ a gbara ọchịchịrị, ezi-na-grained nkume nnoo mebere nke ọchịchịrị feldspar na pyroxene (na ma ọ bụ na-enweghị olivine). E nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ nke iche nke na-nkewa dabere n'elu ọdịiche na udidi, Ọdịdị na ịnweta ọdịnaya
Biaxial nkume
na usoro orthorhombic, monoclinic na triclinic enwere uzo ato kristal nke ogologo di iche. Ntughari okpukpu abụọ ga-eme n'ọtụtụ ntụziaka, mana a ga-enwe axis optic abụọ (ntụziaka nke otu ntụgharị) nke dị iche na nghazi na ụdị iche iche ọ bụla. mineral ndị dị na sistemụ ndị a bụ ihe akpọrọ biaxial. (Na usoro orthorhombic, ngwa ngwa optic nwere mmasị na 'c' (ụkpụrụ kwụ ọtọ axis), ebe na monoclinic na triclinic enweghi mmekọrịta ọ bụla na anyụike kristal.)
Birefringence
(na-ezo dị ka abụọ refraction / DR) birefringence bụ ego nke abụọ refraction nke onye anisotropic gemstone kwupụtara dị ka ihe dị iche n'etiti Refractive indices na kacha nkewa
Biwa nkume pel
na-abụghị nucleated cultured nkume pel (mgbe oval ma ọ bụ Baroque na udi na Japan) farmed gburugburu n'ikperé Ọdọ Mmiri Biwa na Japan. The nkume pel na-toro na nnukwu ọhụrụ mmiri mọsel site inserting obere iberibe mantle n'ime ahu nke mussel
Mmerụ
n'ozuzu okwu maka a oghom nke na-emetụta elu nke a mkpuru iche. A mmerụ a na-emekarị ụmụ mmadụ kpatara omume, ma mgbe ndị mkpuru a na-ebipụ ma ọ bụ mgbe ọ na-na-na-eyi na ọla. Scratches, olulu, na abrasions ndị kasị ahụkarị ụdị mmerụ
Ọnya nkume pel
nkume pel nke na-ekpuchi na otu akụkụ nanị site a nacreous oyi akwa nke toro n'elu ihe mbụ irritant na kọntaktị na mollusk shei. Mgbe ndị dị otú nkume pel na-amịpụtara, n'ógbè nke bụ na kọntaktị na shei bụ iferi nke nacre. Ntem a iferi n'akụkụ a na-emekarị larịị anya na-ezo site ọnọdụ
Mgbukepụ
mgbukepụ bụ mkpokọta nke ukwu nke internally gosipụtara ìhè na-laghachiri anya si gemstone. Alternatively ya nwere ike kwupụtara dika onwunwu (ndụ) nke a gemstone dị ka kpebisiri ike site ego nke ìhè gosipụtara azụ ka anya si azụ nke ndị mejupụtara ihe nkume
Brittleness
brittleness a kọwarala dị ka a adịghị ike na a gemstone nke n'agbanyeghị na ya ekweghị ekwe, eme ka ọ susceptible ka mgbaji ọkpụkpụ, mmebi (eg, okpomọkụ mesoo zircon)
Cat anya
ịhụ chatoyancy
Center nke symmetry
otu n'ime ndị ọcha nke symmetry, a center nke symmetry bụ ugbu mgbe ọ bụla ihu nke zuru okè crystal bụ diametrically abụghị a yiri ihu na n'akụkụ nke ọzọ nke crystal (ie, ihu niile nwere ihe ọzọ na ihu na yiri nke ahụ, na-abụghị na yiri)
Chatoyancy
mmetụta ntụgharị uche sitere na oghere yiri nke fibrous ma ọ bụ (anya cat). Otu eriri nke ìhè na-egosi na akụkụ aka nri na ntụziaka nke inclusions na ọ kachasị mma ịhụ n'okpuru otu isi iyi ọkụ na nkume ndị egbutu en cabochon
Chelsea agba rater
ngwá esịnede a Nchikota nzacha, a na otú wuru na ọ na-enye ohere naanị abụọ warara ngalaba nke ụdịdị dị iche iche na-anya na site na ya: ihe ndị miri red (nso 690nm) na-acha odo odo green (nso 570nm). Ọ bụ uru na-egosi na ọnụnọ nke chrome ma ọ bụ cobalt na ụfọdụ bara nnukwu uru, maka nchọpụta nke (chrome) e ji esiji ákwà na nkume na abaharede ụfọdụ mkpuru ihe si ha nkịtị imitations. Echetara anyị: Jiri dị ka ịdọ aka ná ntị ịrịba ama naanị. Gosiri bụ dabere n'elu ndị ọzọ bịara
Chromophore
(agba gị n'ụlọnga). Akụkụ nke molekul nke na-ahụ maka agba agba. Ọ dị dị ka ihe dị mkpa dị mkpa na ngwakọta kemịkal na nkume idiochromatic ma ọ bụ dị ka adịghị ọcha nke adịghị ọcha na nkume allochromatic
Doo anya
okwu ji kọwaa ikwu nnwere onwe ọ bụla na internai nkwarụ ma ọ bụ irregularity (inclusions) na a mkpuru iche. The definition nwekwara ike-akp na-agụnye n'elu ntụpọ (blemishes) mgbe n'ịtụle doo anya ọkwa nke nkume
Agba ìgwè
Olee ihe enyemaka yiri ìgwè nke na agba hụrụ na elu nke kristal ma ọ bụ na internai owuwu nke nkume (indicative nke ibu N'ụzọ mere site iche dị na dị chemicals, liquids, okpomọkụ, nrụgide na ihe ndị ọzọ)
Agba na bara nnukwu uru
a visual nghọta nke mejuputara n'ime nke na-acha ọcha ìhè nwere ike iche (red, oroma, odo, green, acha anụnụ anụnụ, violet) nakwa dị ka sensashion nke-acha odo odo nke na-adịghị hụrụ na anyanwụ ụdịdị dị iche iche. A na-akọwa agba site na hue, saturation na ụda. Ahu aru nke gemstone na eweputa site na ìhè ya site na ya hu ya bu kwa nihi nnabata nke ufodu wavelength nke ìhè ana ahu anya. Agba nwekwara ike ịbụ site na mgbasa, nnyonye anya nke ìhè na ncha ọkụ
Agba zoning
agba zoning-amalite n'oge uto nke crystal ruru ekwekọghị kasịnụ nke adịghị. The ọdịiche na agba (ìgwè ma ọ bụ zones) na-ejikari hụrụ na-eso ẹdude crystal ihu
Agba? Ọcha
Nhọrọ absorption nke ìhè n'ihi na ọnụnọ nke mgbanwe ọcha (chrome, cobalt, ọla kọpa, vanadium, manganese, ígwè, nickel, titanium) na idiochromatic na allochromatic nkume
Kọmpat
kọmpat pụtara ihe ndị yiri ka oke na-etinyere karịsịa mgbe kristal egosi dịghị ihe ịrịba ama nke bughi ahụ (eg, fme-grained jadeite jed)
Mejupụtara gemstone
ịhụ kpọkọta gemstone
Conch nkume pel
pink nkume pel: nkume pel enwetara site na oké conch, a univalve mollusk hụrụ ụsọ oké osimiri nke Florida, Ọwara California na Mexico. Ndị a nkume pel na-ejikari pink (pink oroma ma ọ bụ na-acha ọcha) na agba na-ji a enweghị nacreous mkpuchi
Conchoidal
ịhụ mgbaji ọkpụkpụ
Kpọtụrụ m tamorphic
na recrystallization nke ịnweta ọdịnaya nke tupu ẹdude oké nkume ma ọ bụ nso kọntaktị mpaghara ruru ka ọnụnọ nke magmas
Kpọtụrụ ejima
a ụdị crystal twinning na nke ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu na-na kọntaktị tinyere a nkịtị ụgbọelu (ejima ụgbọelu). The abụọ n'akụkụ nke ndị dị otú crystal na-otú kọrọ na ọ bụrụ na otu akụkụ na-agba gburugburu site 180 Celsius (a ọkara n'aka) banyere ihe axis (ejima axis) mgbe ahụ abụọ halves ga-eme ka udi nke onye crystal. Kọntaktị ejima dị abụọ iche: otu kọntaktị ejima-ebe 2 halves nke a crystal na-agbara iji mere na ọ bụrụ otu ọkara na-agba gburugburu 180 Celsius banyere ụgbọelu nke sonyere, ọdịdị nke ndị nkịtị crystal na-enwetara; ugboro ugboro, polysynthetic ma ọ bụ lammelar ejima-ụdị crystal twinning gụnyere a usoro nke kọntaktị ejima mgbe ke nnọọ mkpa efere. Ndị a na-mere ndokwa na-abụghị nghazi ha ozugbo agbata obi (eg, dị na corundum na feldspar). Lee kwa interpenetrant ejima
Critical n'akuku
n'akuku nke omume ebe a ray nke ìhè nke na-ejegharị ejegharị site na optically denser ka rarer ọkara na-refracted na 90 ° ka nkịtị (ie, ọ skims elu nke abụọ media na kọntaktị). Cheta na: ihe ọ bụla ọzọ na-abawanye na nke a n'akuku nke omume ga-eme ka refracted ray na-atụgharị azụ n'ime mbụ na-ajụ ebe ọ ga-erube isi n'iwu nke echiche (ie, ọ ga-kpam kpam internally gosipụtara.)
Cryptocrystalline
(kaadị = zoro). Okwu e ji na-akọwa ihe onwunwe esịnede otu nnukwu ọnụ ọgụgụ nke obere kristal mgbe sub-microscopic akpụ ihe unbroken uka. The sub-microscopic crystal rụpụta mkpokọta nchịkọta nwere ike na-egosi amorphous ka gba ọtọ anya
Crystal
a crystal bụ a na ya edo siri ike na ihe nyere iwu internai atọmịk Ọdịdị na mpụga ụdị bounded site symmetrically ndokwa ụgbọelu (ewepụghị) ihu
Crystal ụdị
a crystal ụdị mejupụtara ail ndị ihu nke na-N'otu aka ahụ metụtara crystallographic anyụike (eg, pyramid, prism, pinacoid, dome)
Crystal àgwà
na crystal shapes (ụdị, gbakwunyere elu e ji mara) na nke mineral-emekarị-erukwa na-akpọ ha crystal àgwà
Crystal inclusions
crystal inclusions bụ amata ha nwere dịtụ angular nkuku na dịtụ ogologo n'ọnụ ya. Mkpumkpu n'ọnụ na ubé mechie iche-iche na-zutere na ruru reabsorption nke inclusions. (crystal inclusions-emekarị-egosi na enyemaka megide usu ndabere mgbe anya n'okpuru darkfield ọkụ. Ha nwere ike-enyocha site na iji gafere polars.)
Crystal symmetry
crystal symmetry na-ezo aka kwesịrị isi na ụkpụrụ nke atọmịk Ọdịdị. Ọ bụ kpọmkwem mmeputakwa (imekwa ọdịdị) nke yiri crystal ihu (n'ọnụ, nkuku) na-egosi na iwu esịtidem ndokwa nke umi.
Crystalline
crystalline ihe onwunwe site definition bụ ịnweta siri ike onye ion, atọm ma ọ bụ ụmụ irighiri mere ndokwa na-eme ihe n'usoro ejiji. Na omume, na okwu a na-eji na-akọwa bekee nwere mgbe Ọdịdị na directional Njirimara ma ọ bụchaghị mpụga geometric udi
Crystallographic anyụike
ndị a bụ myiyi edoghi nke ebighị ebi ogologo na-agba ọsọ site na
ezigbo crystal na ụfọdụ anya ntụziaka na ikwu na symmetry nke crystal. Ha irutu na etiti nke crystal na a mgbe a na-akpọ si. (Ha na-edoghi nke akwụkwọ site na nke nwere ike tụọ ikwu anya na ọchịchọ nke dị iche iche ihu.)
Cultured nkume pel
cultured nkume pel na-pearly formations kpamkpam ma ọ bụ ikpe mere
site aka nke ụmụ mmadụ n'ụlọnga n'ime ime nke elu mollusks. A na-emetụta cultured nkume pel ma na ma ọ bụ na-enweghị a ntọala
Ahu otutu nkume pel
a pearl nke kpụrụ n'ime ahu nke pearl mollusk na-spheroid ke udi
Dendritic Nsonye
osisi-ma ọ bụ akpaetu-dị ka mgbape ndochi (ebe inclusions nke dị iche iche ihe onwunwe nwere ike fil a ezumike - a na-ígwè oxide.)
Divitrify
ịnapụ enyo luster na transluceny. (N'ihe banyere ngwaahịa iko a na-akpọ meta jed - bụ site na mmepe nke incipient crystallization)
Dichroscope
na dichroscope na-ngwá nke na-enye ohere pleochroic mmetụta nke mkpuru mineral na-hụrụ, abụọ na agba ma ọ bụ shades nke na agba na oge
Diffraction
na diffraction nke ìhè bụ a pụrụ iche n'ụdị nnyonye anya nke ìhè na nke na-acha ọcha ìhè na-agbajikwa elu (gbawara n'etiti) n'ime ya akụrụngwa na agba ka ìhè na-agabiga a obere aperture ma ọ bụ mgbe ìhè mmiri na ebili mmiri rue onu n'etiti dị iche iche refracting bekee (eg, play nke na agba hụrụ na oké ọnụ ahịa opal)
Dispersion
dispersion bụ nkewa (na-agbasa) nke na-acha ọcha ìhè n'ime spektral agba site refraction (ekwe nke ìhè) dị ka ìhè na-agabiga abụọ uche ebupụta. Na ihe bara nnukwu uru a na-akpọkarị ya 'ọkụ'
Ugboro abụọ Refractive
anisotropic - mineral na-egosiputa ihe ngosi anya nke uzo (dika, okwute na tetragonal, hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic and triclinic systems)
Akpa ụdịdị dị iche iche
okwu e ji maka dum nso nke wavelengths nke radiant ike ndị fọdụrụ n'ezinụlọ redio mmiri na ebili mmiri site kemgwucha obere w wavelengths
Ọcha nke symmetry
ọcha nke symmetry bụ n'ụzọ nke classifi-cation maka asaa crystal usoro. Ha bụ ngwaọrụ ka anyị nwee ike ikewapụ na-akọwa iche iche nke crystal udi. Ha na-agụnye a ụgbọelu nke symmetry, ihe axis nke symmetry na a center nke symmetry (lee ọkwụkwọ n'okpuru onye Ndepụta)
Eluvium
eluvial nkwụnye ego iso nke oké nkume irighiri (gravel) nke a eroded (weathered si) si usu oké nkume na-anọgide na situ (na ebe) na-enweghị emume njem na osimiri
Emit
inye ma ọ bụ si (eg, ìhè)
Enantiomorphism
ndị molekụla Ọdịdị nke quartz nke na-enye ịrị elu na ekpe na aka-nri-gburugburu uto nke quartz, na ya okirikiri polarization. (Cheta: The ọnyịnye nke obere auxillary ihu nke bụ ugboro ugboro anya na mpụga ụdị nyere aka chọpụta ekpe ma ọ bụ aka nri handedness nke crystal)
Enhancement
ịhụ wuru ọgwụgwọ
Epigenetic inclusions
biputere dịkọrọ ndụ inclusions. Ndị nke mere mgbe e guzobere usu crystal. A na-agụnye iche iche nke gbawatụrụ agbawa na ịnweta inclusions kpụrụ exsolution (eg, rutile silk na corundum); ghara ikwu mmanụ / opticon, wdg, remnants na mgbaji ọkpụkpụ jupụtara bara nnukwu uru.
Exsolution inclusions
ịhụ exsolved
Exsolved
na unmixing nke mineral. Ụfọdụ na abụọ nke mineral etolite siri ike ngwọta na elu okpomọkụ ma na-ejighị n'aka na ala okpomọkụ. Mgbe ndị a ajụkwa ji nwayọọ nwayọọ na otu ịnweta nwere ike-amanye mgbe usu Ọdịdị cools na contracts, n'ụzọ nkịtị squeezing adịghị n'ime ohere iputa oghere ebe ha crystallize (eg, rutile agịga (silk) na corundum)
Ikpochapu
mkpochapụ bụ na-anọghị nke ìhè na-alọghachi anya. Nke a na-akpata nkume na-egosi ọchịchịrị na-enweghị billiance
Akụkụ aha
faceted bara nnukwu uru nwere a okpueze (top òkè n'elu eriri), a table (etiti akụkụ nke ihe okpueze), a ọkiké (ngalaba nke nkume na kasị ukwuu perimeta ma ọ bụ mpụga ókè), a Pavilion (na ala akụkụ n'okpuru ihe-ọkiké ). Akụkụ ndị ọzọ nile nwere ike ịdị iche na ha size, ugboro ole ma ọ bụ ọbụna ịdị adị dabere na ọnwụ ịke eji. Ihe atụ, na ọkọlọtọ nzọụkwụ-bee (emerald ịkpụ) nkume ndị culet (obere akụkụ ke ukot nke Pavilion) na-anọchi a keel akara (ogologo akara inyịme tinyere etiti nke ala nke Pavilion)
Ụgha cleavage
ịhụ ngalaba
Nku Nsonye
a ụgbọelu nke nkeji cavities nke ejikari-egosi dị ka ìgwè nke ezi mkpanaka-dị ka ngalaba nke intercommunicating ọwa (na-emekarị mmiri mmiri jupụtara).
Fibrous
aha e nyere ihe onwunwe ebe constituent kristal bụ agịga ekara (eg, Asbestos, nephrite jed)
Mkpisiaka inclusions
ndị a nwere ike nwekwara ike maara dị ka agwọ ọrịa feathers na iso nke interconnecting netwọk nke mmiri mmiri-jupụta ọwa na ụmụ irighiri mmiri yiri a mkpisiaka. Abụkarị n'ihi nke ịnweta ngwọta nwayọọ nwayọọ nzacha n'ime a tupu ẹdude mgbape na ihe ugbua kpụrụ crystal, na-agwọ ndị fissure. Ndị ọzọ ọnọdụ ebe otú ahụ na atụmatụ nwere ike ime bụ n'oge okpomọkụ okpomọkụ ọgwụgwọ. Mkpịsị aka na-ahụkarị n'ebe mesoo rubies
Imecha
imecha na-ezo aka faceting àgwà nke mkpuru na-ekpe ikpe site ogo enwu, mgbe nile, na flatness nke ọ bụla e ji mara
Fluorescence
fluorescence bụ emission nke anya ìhè site gemstones na e gụrụ anya ma ọ bụ adịghị ahụ anya radiations nke mkpumkpu wavelength (elu ike)
Mgbaji ọkpụkpụ
mgbaji ọkpụkpụ bụ ihe oge ufodu mgbawa ma ọ bụ ezumike na a nkume
Gem
a dị oké ọnụ ahịa na nkume nke ụdị ọ bụla, bee na-egbu maramara n'ihi ịchọ mma (pearl bụ a ọwọrọiso wezụga ndị ikpeazụ chọrọ). A mkpuru site definition bụ otu na nwere mma, anwụ ngwa ngwa na ụkọ
Glass
okwu iko na etinyere bekee nke na-kere site agbaze na ngwa ngwa jụrụ nke ịnweta bekee, n'ihi na guzobere amorphous ihe onwunwe. Glass nwere ike ịbụ wuru (manmade, mgbe ụfọdụ, kwuru na dị ka mado) ma ọ bụ karịa adịkarịghị, eke eg, obsidian (mgbawa ugwu iko), tektites (-eche na-meteoric ikwommiri ngwaahịa)
Granite
konkiri bụ ìhè acha, Ntụ-grained intrusive igneous nkume mebere ukwuu n'ime ha nke quartz, feldspar na mica
Uto banding
Mkpa ọkụ na darker ìgwè na ogologo edoghi na akụkụ ndị na-eso bughi nlereanya nke ịnweta
Àgwà
ndị e ji mara udi nke a ịnweta akacha etịbe. Àgwà bụghị nanị na-agụnye mpụga ụdị ọtụtụ edise ke ịnweta kamakwa ahụkarị n'elu mmetụta dị ka nke ọma
Hackly
ịhụ mgbaji ọkpụkpụ
Halo Nsonye
crystal Nsonye gbara gburugburu a nchegbu mgbape (s). Ndị a nwekwara ike anya dị ka a urukurubụba na nku abụọ emanating si gụnyere crystal (nke na-abụkarị zircon)
Ekweghị ekwe
ekweghị ekwe bụ ike nke ịnweta nwere iguzogide ọkọ (abrasion). Hụ kwa ọkwa Moh
Agwọ cracks
gwọọ cracks (cracks ma ọ bụ cleavages) ebe a mmiri mmiri banyere okpukpu na crystal toro azụ ọnụ. Ọtụtụ mgbe akụkụ ụfọdụ nke ọmụmụ na-tọrọ atọ na cavities na ọwa na-eme feathery ma ọ bụ akara mkpisiaka-dị ka ihe nakawa etu esi (mgbe ụfọdụ ígwè-ntụpọ)
Hue
hue na-ezo aka na aha agba ya n'onwe ya: mmetụta uche dị ọcha nke uhie, oroma, odo, akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ, acha anụnụ anụnụ, violet na ọdịiche ndị a. Hue na-ezo aka na mmetụta nke odo odo (n'etiti acha ọbara ọbara na violet), nke na-adịghị ahụ anya anyanwụ
Hydrothermal
nkume tọrọ ala, na-emekarị ke akpatre nkebi nke igneous igba si magma ọgaranya mmiri na ndị ọzọ obodo bekee. The hydrothermal veins nke ịnweta ọgaranya ngwọta iyo site gaps na gbawatụrụ agbawa na sedimentary nkume na ụdị crystal lined cavities na nkume
Idiochromatic
mgbe mgbanwe mmewere bụ ihe dị oké mkpa constituent na a mkpuru ihe onwunwe, na mkpuru ihe onwunwe bụ idiochromatic (idio = onwe, chroma = agba)
Imikpu cell
obere iko cell maka nwere adabara liquids. Ụkpụrụ n'azụ na-eji ihe imikpu cell bụ na Refractive index nke mmiri mmiri bụ nkume, mfe ọ ga-abụ ịhụ n'ime nkume. Fọrọ nke nta ọ bụla colorless mmiri mmiri, ọbụna mmiri, ga-egbutu elu echiche, na-eme ka ị na-elele inclusions nnọọ mfe
Na situ
ihe onwunwe okosobode ke ọnọdụ ebe ọ mbụ e guzobere ma ọ bụ debe kwuru na ịchọta situ (n'ụzọ nkịtị na ebe)
Nsonye
n'ozuzu okwu maka ihe ọ bụla ntụpọ ma ọ bụ irregularity n'ime a mkpuru iche. Inclusions nwere ike ekewa atọ dị iche iche: siri ike-ma crystalline (eg, zircon na sapphire) ma ọ bụ ndị na-abụghị crystalline (eg, eke iko peridot) kwere omume. Cavities-ihe ndị a nwere ike na-etolite n'oge usu bara nnukwu uru ibu (isi inclusions), ma ọ e mesịrị (sekọndrị inclusions). Ma ụdị wee jupụta ọ bụla Nchikota mmiri mmiri, gas na ma ọ bụ siri ike. Ndị na abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa N'ụzọ na-akpọ ógbè multiphase. Uto phenomena-agba zoning na twinning na-ma ihe atụ nke ibu phenomena
Infrared
infrared n'aka n'okpuru acha uhie uhie na a nso nke radieshon-amalite na wavelengths na-abụghị ogologo karịa 700nm uhie ìhè. Infrared radieshon na-adịkarị mara dị ka okpomọkụ n'ihi na ọ na-amị a sensashion nke ịhụnanya mgbe ọ na-abia anyị Skip
Nnyonye anya
ebe abụọ ụzarị njem na otu ụzọ, ma nke na-adọ (nzọụkwụ), ibe egbochi ibe-eme ma ngụkọta ikpochapu nke ìhè ma ọ bụ tupu dominance nke otu ma ọ bụ ihe na agba
Nnyonye anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ
ndị a bụ ngwa anya mmetụta hụrụ mgbe abụọ Refractive mineral-ele ya anya site yiri ihu ke convergent okporo osisi nke ndị ekewasị ìhè. Ha imeli ihe ọmụma bara uru banyere ngwa anya agwa nke nkume
Interpenetrant ejima
a ụdị crystal twinning nke mmadụ abụọ na otú okokpon ọnụ na ha na-egosi na penetrated ibe (mgbe amị cross ma ọ bụ kpakpando nkume)
Iridescence
iridescence ma ọ bụ play nke na agba na-akọwa agba ma ọ bụ usoro nke agba emepụta site nnyonye anya ma ọ bụ diffraction mgbe ìhè na-apụta ìhè ma si mkpa fim ma ọ bụ site na pụrụ iche Ọdịdị nke dị oké ọnụ ahịa opal
Isomorphous nnọchi
na nnọchi nke otu chemical mmewere ihe ọzọ nke otu valency na chemical mejupụtara. Nke a na-obosara ọdịiche na anụ ahụ Njirimara nke ndị òtù nke usoro. Valency: nke yiri chemical ọdịdị na ionic okirikiri
Isotropic
ịhụ singly Refractive
Keshi cultured nkume pel
nke a na - ahụkarị na - enweghị mmiri mmiri mmiri na - enweghị mmiri nke na - etolite na mollusk mgbe a na - eweghachi ya na mmiri mgbe ewepụsịrị ihe ọkụkụ nke mkpụrụ pel na - abụghị nke nucleated. Ihe ndi a agagh aghagha anya na pearis nkpuru mmiri nke na-adikariri obere. A na - akpọ `` keshi '' dị ọcha naanị n'ihi na ha anaghị eto site na ntọala artificial. Mgbe ụfọdụ, a na-akpọ ya 'pel' na-enweghị mkpụrụ iji mee ka ọdịiche dị iche na nke na-abụghị nke ntọala. Lee kwa nkume pel Biwa
Keshi nkume pel (mmiri)
Japan na-akpọ mkpụrụ pel 'keshi' (poppies). Mkpakọrịta a dị n'agbata obere obere mkpụrụ osisi poppy na obere pel dị ka obere
Konoscope
a polariscope ruo eruo na a ike convergent oghere nke na-enyere ikwado ikiri ihe ndị na nnyonye anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ
Lamellae inclusions
mere site polysynthetic twinning. Nwere ike na-egosi dị ka blinds ma ọ bụ uzo azụ-akara. Ha nwekwara ike na-egosi na-ezukọ na angles (eg, na corundum ebe ntụziaka izute)
Lateritic Ona
n'ala ihe onwunwe (esịnede nkume iberibe na ahịhịa) nke na-isi ewepụtara decomposed basait (a ezi grained ọchịchịrị mgbawa ugwu nkume ọgaranya ígwè na magnesium, nke dị na-emeghe ka mmetụta nke chemical weathering na a igwe nke ebe okpomọkụ)
Luminescence
n'ozuzu okwu maka inyepu ìhè 'oyi' a na-ahụ anya site na ihe na-enweta ike zuru oke n'otu ụdị ma ọ bụ ọzọ. Fivekpụrụ ise a na - ahụ anya bụ: chemi-luminescence (nsonaazụ nke mgbanwe kemịkal), tribo-luminescence (nke esemokwu sitere na ya), thermo-luminescence (nke ewepụtara site na okpomọkụ), photo¬luminescence (nke ewepụtara site na anya ma ọ bụ adịghị ahụ anya nke ike dị elu / mkpụmkpụ wavelength) na cathodoluminescence (nsonaazụ site na mkpali na eriri elektrọn n'ime ụlọ agụụ)
Luster
luster bụ ukwu na àgwà nke ìhè na-gosipụtara si n'elu nke nkume. Ndị na-esonụ okwu na-eji na-akọwa gemstone lusters: dara: elu luster gosiri site opaque dara mineral. adamantine: elu n'elu reflectivity. vitreous: iko-dị ka luster ahụkarị nke a ọtụtụ n'ime bara nnukwu uru. resinous: ahụkarị luster nke resins (adụ na ala RI). waxy: fọrọ nke nta matte elu (-akpọ mgbe ụfọdụ kegriiz). kegriiz: ubé mmanu mmanu achọ dapụtara si agbasasị nke ìhè site a microscopically ike ike n'elu. pearly: luster nke pearl / nne-nke-pearl. silky: fibrous luster nke silk
Mabe (cultured) nkume pel
mejupụtara cultured ọnya nkume pel na nke mbụ ntọala e wepụrụ na dochie a nta bead sikwuo na, na a dome ekara mpempe mother- nke-pearl glued ya isi na-ekpuchi ebe kọrọ nacre
Magma
wụrụ awụ (mmiri mmiri) nkume
Nro
nro n'aka ịbụ ike nke na a na-akp ma ọ bụ ekara site na-eti na haama ma ọ bụ site nrụgide nke rollers
Mmadụ mere
a mmadụ mere ngwaahịa site definition bụ otu na e synthesized na a laabu. (synthesize bụ itinye ọnụ ma ọ bụ ikpokọta ọcha n'ime a mgbagwoju dum). Ọgwụgwụ N'ihi nwere ike ịbụ a sịntetik gemstone (ie, onye nke na eke counterpart) ma ọ bụ ihe na wuru gemstone (ie, onye nke nwere enweghị obi counterpart)
Massive
okwu e ji na-akọwa ihe onwunwe nke nwere anya internai Ọdịdị nke a crystal, ma nke na-adịghị egosi na eyi geometric ụdị. Nke a nwere ike esịnede otu (eg, bilie quartz) ma ọ bụ karịa crystal nkeji (eg, jadeite)
Mettalic
ịhụ luster
Metamict
okwu e ji ihe onwunwe nke tara ahụhụ a okpukpu-ala si a crystalline ka a nwere obere amorphous ala; nkịtị na mineral nwere redioaktivu ihe (eg, ala ụdị zircon)
Metamorphic nkume
metamorphic (n'ụzọ nkịtị, gbanwere na ụdị) nkume na-guzobere si tupu ẹdude nkume bụ isi ihe na ihe nke mgbali, okpomọkụ na / ma ọ bụ iwebata ọhụrụ chemical bekee
Metric carat (CT)
otu metric carat = otu ụzọ n'ụzọ ise nke gram (0.20gr) ma ọ bụ 200 milligrams (mg). A metric carat bụ unit nke ịdị arọ maka ail gemstones na cultured ib. A na-egosipụta ibu ya na ebe ntụpọ abụọ na a na-akpọkarị ntụpọ a akara 'isi', yabụ, 1 metric carat = 100 points
Mikroskopu
ihe ngwa anya ngwá esịnede a Nchikota anya m nke na-amịpụta a uku onyinyo nke ihe. Ụfọdụ ihe ndị ka mkpa ojiji nke magnification: Nsonye ọmụmụ (eke vs. mmadụ mere; mode nke guzobere / crystal ibu); n'elu nnyocha (àgwà nke ịkpụ (symmetry), Polish (ọnọdụ nke na-emenye, firemarks); nchọpụta nke ọtụtụ ihe mejupụtara nkume; njirimara nke wuru agwọ ọrịa; ịchọpụta vulnerability mmebi (eg, ọnụnọ nke mgbaji ọkpụkpụ na / ma ọ cleavage); ịchọpụta na ibawanye (SR vs .DR, nwekwara ike na-egosi ego nke birefringence)
Ịnweta
a ịnweta bụ a ndammana aa inorganic umi inwe a chemical mejupụtara na nke anụ ahụ Njirimara nke bụ mgbe nile n'ime warara ókè. Ya Ọdịdị bụ na-emekarị crystalline
Monochromatic ìhè
monochromatic ìhè bụ ìhè nke otu wavelength naanị. Ọkọlọtọ odo monochromatic ìhè ji mee ihe maka Refractometer nha na-ewepụtara a sodium vepo oriọna. Nke a n'ezie mejupụtara abụọ nnọọ anya spaced emission edoghi, onye pụtara uru bụ 589.3nm
Multiphase inclusions
inclusions na nwere ike ịnwe mmiri mmiri na gas na / ma ọ kristal
Nacre
a secretion mepụtara site na mantle nke ụfọdụ mollusks nke Nleta iridescent n'ígwé nke ma ndị pearl na nne-nke-pearl elu n'ime mollusk shei. Nacre mejupụtara crystalline carbonate nke wayo na organic ihe onwunwe na-akpọ conchiolin
Namometers (nm)
unit nke mmesho maka mkpumkpu wavelengths nke akpa ụdịdị dị iche iche (radiant ike). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth akụkụ nke a millimeter (1 / 1,000,000 nm) eg, anya ìhè dara n'etiti 700nm (red) na 400nm (violet)
Native ịkpụ
okwu e ji maka a ịke nke ịkpụ họọrọ kacha ibu njigide. Ndị a miri emi ịkpụ nkume na nnukwu pavilions mgbe chọrọ
recutting bịaruo mma n'ike-n'ike
Ọjọọ crystal
cavities n'ime mkpuru inwe a crystalline udi. Ndị a cavities e kere mgbe ụfọdụ ebe na-eto na ngwa karịa ndị ọzọ ebe, akpụ na kpuchikwara a adabaghi ​​ma ọ bụ ebe mbụ crystal Nsonye etisasịwo si (ọjọọ kristal mgbe egosi Mkpa ọkụ ka ha ọbịa n'okpuru darkfield ìhè)
Ọjọọ Nsonye
a na-ezighị ezi Nsonye nwere ike ịbụ gas ọ bụ mmiri mmiri jupụtara ma ọ bụ na-ebu obere siri ike Nsonye (lee kwa ọjọọ crystal)
Na-ezighị ezi na-agụ
ma ọ bụrụ na nkume n'okpuru ule na a refractometer nwere R.1 n'elu nso nke ngwá, ọ dịghị onyinyo onu ga-hụrụ (ma e wezụga nke kọntaktị mmiri mmiri)
Non-crystalline
mineral na ngwaọrụ ndị ọzọ e kwuru na a na-abụghị crystalline ma ọ bụ amorphous (n'ụzọ nkịtị, na-enweghị ụdị) mgbe ha Jack ihe n'usoro internai atọmịk Ọdịdị na a geometrically mgbe ya dị (eg, na ịnweta bekee, opal na iko, nakwa dị ka organic ihe)
Non-acha ọcha ìhè
na-abụghị na-acha ọcha ìhè (ie, acha) a kọwara na okwu nke ya hue (ie, agba nke ya tupu kasị wavelength), saturation (omimi ma ọ bụ ike nke kasị agba) na ụda (ndo-ìhè ka ọchịchịrị)
Nkịtị
na Gbasara Anya ail angles bụ ụfọdụ si nkịtị, ihe myiyi akara mmasị na ikike angles (90 ebe ndị ray-abia elu ma ọ bụghị site n'elu onwe ya
Optic axis
a direction nke otu refraction n'ime ihe n'ụzọ doubly Refractive crystal a maara dị ka ihe optic axis
Optic agwa
ịhụ optic ọdịdị
Optic ọgụgụ okirikiri
a iko okirikiri ruo eruo a obere mkpanaka nke-eme dị ka a condensing oghere aka mkpebi nnyonye anya ihe nakawa etu esi hụrụ tinyere ihe optic axis na anisotropic ihe onwunwe
Optic ọdịdị
optic ọdịdị nke a ịnweta: mineral na-ekewa n'ime uniaxial, biaxial na isotropic (optic agwa). Uniaxial na biaxial mineral na-n'ihu subdivided n'ime ndị nke bụ optically nti na ndị nke na-optically ọjọọ (optic ịrịba ama)
Optic ịrịba ama
ịhụ optic ọdịdị
Optical njupụta
ngwa anya njupụta bụ mgbagwoju onwunwe nke demonstates onwe ya na selata nke ìhè. (lee kwa refraction)
Organic ngwaahịa
organic ngwaahịa ndị ihe mepụtara site na ọrụ nke ndụ ntule
Orient (nke pearl)
na iridescent n'elu sheen nke mkpuru pearl na nne-nke-pearl. Ọ na-mere site na nnyonye anya nke ìhè na mkpa fim (mkpa efere nke nacreous oyi akwa) na site diffraction si ezi n'ọnụ nke efere
Oriental nkume pel
eji nke a okwu bụ nanị akọwa eke nkume pel dị na sait mmiri mollusks nke Peasia Gulf. Otú ọ dị, ọ dịla ihe n'ozuzu ahia omenala klas ail saltwater eke nkume pel dị ka Oriental
Okwu Mmechi Umu
ngalaba bụ a breakage na etịbe tinyere a ụgbọelu nke adịghị ike, kama tinyere ụgbọ elu Ẹbiet crystal ihu, ma ọ bụ na o kwere omume
crystal chere ihu, dị ka cleavage (ọ na-mara dị ụgha cleavage)
Pearl ọka
na pearl ọka bụ ụkpụrụ unit maka pearl erikpu 1 ọka = 0.25 carat (1 CT = 4grains)
Nkume pel
nkume pel na-eke formations secreted mmadụ na mberede na-enweghị enyemaka nke mmadụ ọ bụla gị n'ụlọnga, n'ime ime mollusks. Ha na-esịnede ihe organic umi (a scleroprotein aha ya bụ conchiolin) na nke calcium carbonate (na-emekarị n'ụdị aragonite) mere ndokwa na concentric n'ígwé, outermost nke na-akasị ndị nacreous
Pearly
ịhụ luster
Pegmatites
igneous nkume nke Ntụ uru mgbe nwere obere mineral, gụnyere nnukwu kristal nke gemstones (eg, beryl, chrysoberyl, feldspar, quartz, spessartite garnet)
Phosphorescence
phosphorescence bụ na mmetụta na-egbu oge fluorescence (ie, ọ bụ ihe afterglow). Ọ bụ iso emission nke anya ìhè mgbe isi iyi nke meekwa radieshon akwụsịwo
Photoluminescence
photoluminescence bụ a mkpokọta okwu maka fluorescence na phosphorescence. Ọ bụ mmetụta gosipụtawo site na ụfọdụ ihe ndị na-amị anya ìhè n'elu na-gụrụ obere wavelength radieshon (eg, akpa radiations na-ahụ anya (-acha anụnụ anụnụ), ultraviolet na x-ray akụkụ nke ụdịdị dị iche iche)
Pinpoints
obere ahụ hụrụ dị ka inclusions. Mgbe ndị a nọ na ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu ha nwere ike kọwara dị ka a igwe-ojii na nghọta nke nkume nwere ike isi
Placer nkwụnye ego
placer nkwụnye ego iso nke elu kasịnụ nke bara uru mineral nke elu kpọmkwem nnukwu mpo (na anwụ ngwa ngwa) nke kpụrụ weathering nke ndị nne na nna oké nkume na, ọtụtụ mgbe, ekemende e ebuga iyi ma ọ bụ ife edinam
Ụgbọelu nke symmetry
otu n'ime ndị ọcha nke symmetry; a ụgbọelu nke symmetry bụ ihe myiyi ụgbọelu nke na-ekewa a ahu abụọ n'akụkụ nke mere na onye ọ bụla akụkụ bụ gosipụtara (mirror) onyinyo nke ọzọ so (ie, akụkụ nke ọ bụla bụ kpọmkwem inverse counterpart nke ọzọ)
Plastics
a n'ozuzu okwu maka a ọnụ ọgụgụ nke organic mmadụ mere bekee (na-emekarị a resin dabeere polima) nke nwere ike extruded ma ọ bụ kpụzie okpomọkụ na / ma ọ bụ nrụgide
Play nke na agba
okwu play nke na agba na-akọwa usoro nke agba hụrụ mgbe ìhè na-apụta ìhè si mkpa fim ma ọ bụ site na-egosi lattice-dị ka Ọdịdị nke dị oké ọnụ ahịa opal. Ọ na-emepụta site diffraction (n'inyawa elu nke na-acha ọcha ìhè n'ime ya akụrụngwa na agba dị ka ìhè na-agabiga a obere aperture) nke bụ a pụrụ iche n'ụdị nke nnyonye anya nke ìhè
Pleochroism
pleochroism (n'ụzọ nkịtị, ọtụtụ acha) bụ n'ozuzu okwu ji kọwaa dị iche iche directional agba nke nwere ike ike hụrụ na ụfọdụ acha nkume na kewaa ìhè (ie, na-doubly refracting) ruru ha esịtidem crystal Ọdịdị. Ọ na-agụnye dichroism (abụọ acha) na trichroism (atọ acha)
Polariscope
na polariscope bụ ngwá esịnede abụọ nkeji maka mmepụta nke ụgbọelu ekewasị ìhè ndokwa na a n'usoro n'usoro ogbo n'etiti ha. Ngwaọrụ ule naanị ma ma ọ bụ ihe onwunwe bụ singly ma ọ bụ doubly Refractive
Polariscope Jeremaya mere
singly Refractive-onwunwe-anọgide ọchịchịrị ofụri a 360 Celsius n'aka. Ọ bụrụ na ihe dị n'okpuru internai nje ọ pụrụ egosi anomalous (ụgha) abụọ refraction (ADR), na-emekarị n'ụdị wavy ìgwè ma ọ bụ oge ufodu patches. Ugboro abụọ Refractive-nkume bee si otu crystal anọ ọnọdụ nke ìhè na anọ ọnọdụ nke ọchịchịrị. Crystalline aggregates ma ọ bụ kpamkpam gụnyere DR ihe onwunwe pụrụ iyi ail ìhè nile a 360 Celsius n'aka. Nnyonye anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ-na ikpe nke DR ihe onwunwe, ma ọ bụrụ na ọnọdụ ndị ziri ezi na ihe na nnyonye anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ a kwuru, ọ dịkwa ike iji chọpụta ma nkume bụ uniaxial ma ọ bụ biaxial. (optic ịrịba ama-ozugbo ọ hụrụ na nnyonye anya ọnụ ọgụgụ, ọ bụ mgbe ahụ na o kwere omume iji chọpụta ma nkume bụ ebughi na enyemaka nke
ngwa efere ọnọ n'ụzọ pụrụ iche n'ihi na nzube)
Polycrystalline
mineral nke bụ aggregates nke obere kristal na-akpọ ógbè polycrystalline. Ndị a dị nta kristal nwere ike ghọtara na iji magnification, na mgbe ụfọdụ site anya naanị (eg, fọrọ nke nta ail jadeite jed)
Polysynthetic ejima
ịhụ lammelar ejima
Potch (nkịtị opal)
Milky ihe onwunwe kọrọ play nke na agba, emi esịnede silica ngalaba ndị na-ahaghị size si otú na-eme ka ìhè na--agbasasịkwa kama diffracted
Protogenetic inclusions
tupu ẹdude inclusions: ndị nke dị tupu usu crystal malitere na-etolite ma na-etinye obi gị dum 'njikere mere' n'ime nke ikpeazụ (eg, siri ike ahụ na obere kristal. Ha na-agbasaghị na-irregularly strewn nile na-adịkarịghị metụtara usu crystal si Ọdịdị
Pseudomorph
a pseudomorph (ụdị ụgha) bụ ịnweta nke na-ewe ọdịdị (ọdịdị) nke ịnweta ọzọ (ma ọ bụ ihe ndị na-eme ihe) n'ihi ọkụ na / ma ọ bụ nrụgide ma ọ bụ usoro kemịkalụ, dịka, anya agụ (ntụgharị quartz nke crocidolite, mineral asbestos); osisi agate (a quartz nnọchi nke osisi)
Echiche
ngosipụta bụ nloghachi site a n'elu (ma internai ma ọ bụ mpụga) nke ụfọdụ nke ìhè nke dara na na elu. Leekwa Iwu Snell
Refraction
refraction bụ ngbanwe nke uzo nke ìhè na-ejegharị site na otu mgbasa ozi gaa na nke ọzọ nke njupụta anya dị iche iche (belụsọ mgbe ọ na-akụ elu nke mgbasa ozi abụọ ahụ na 90 Celsius). Ka ìhè na-esite na ụgụrụ gaa na nke na-ajụ oyi (ịmaatụ, site n’ikuku wee banye na okwute) ọ na-ehulata iru ala ka ọ dị, na ntụ ọzọ ka ọ na-esite na denser gaa na usoro na-adịkarị ụkọ ọ na-ehulata site na nke nkịtị. Ngwa anya njupụta bụ ihe onwunwe dị mgbagwoju anya nke na-egosipụta onwe ya na ịkwụsịlata ọkụ. Leekwa Iwu Snell
Refractive index (RI)
na RI bụ ihe dị mfe ruru atụnyere ọsọ nke ìhè na ikuku na-ọsọ nke ìhè na a nyere ọkara. Ọkọlọtọ eji maka atụ Refractive index bụ ikuku (nditịm a agụụ); si otú ahụ RI nke ikuku na-atụle ga 1.00
Regional metamorphic
na recrystallization nke ịnweta ọdịnaya nke tupu ẹdude nkume na ụba okpomọkụ (700 Celsius -2000 ° C) na nrụgide
Ikwu njupụta
Lee kpọmkwem nnukwu mpo (SG)
Mmapụta wavelengths
mmapụta wavelengths ndị wavelengths bụghị etinye obi gị dum site ihe onwunwe nke ikpokọta ka na-enye anyị perc-eived agba nke ihe
Resinous
Lee luster
Rock
a nkume mejupụtara ịnweta ahụ nke emewo ma ọ bụ sikwuo ọnụ site chemical Filiks ma ọ bụ e bonded ọnụ site okpomọkụ ma ọ bụ nrụgide
Saturation
na-ezo aka na àgwà ma ọ bụ ike nke na agba hụrụ na brilliancy mgbukepụ nke uzo faceted nkume
Schiller
Lee sheen
Scintillation
sparkle; inye anya nke mkpụmkpụ, na-egbuke egbuke mgbukepụ nke ìhè
Sectile
sectile na-ezo aka ihe ikike nke na-peeled site mma na a ire ụtọ ịkpụ
Sedimentary nkume
ndị e hiwere site na-ewuli elu nke ihe (sedimenti) nke sitere na mbibi anụ ahụ na nke kemịkal nke nkume ndị dị na ụwa
Mkpụrụ nkume pel
nnọọ obere nkume pel (erughị v. ọka / ruru. 2mm) na-ndammana guzobere ke adụ anụ ahụ nke mollusk ka a N'ihi nke mbuso agha nke ájá nke, free sere n'elu àkwá, nje ma ọ bụ ndị ọzọ na mba ozu. Mkpụrụ nkume pel ndị na-emekarị oge ufodu na ewepụghị, ma mgbe obere gburugburu ndị na-achọta ha, ha na-iche si maka ojiji na ọla. Lee kwa Keshi nkume pel
Nhọrọ absorption
nhọrọ absorption nke ìhè bụ suppression ma ọ bụ absorption nke ụfọdụ wavelengths si ìhè agafe ihe ma ọ bụ gosipụtara anya ya elu. Agba nke ihe onwunwe na-esi ndị fọdụrụ (mmapụta) wavelengths na iru anya
Sheen (ma ọ bụ schiller)
sheen bụ a akachia ma ọ bụ asị ibe (gbasaa) echiche mmetụta mere site ìhè na-gosipụtara site inclusions ma ọ bụ bughi atụmatụ n'ime nkume. The okwu na-agụnye chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence na play nke na agba na opal)
Silk (Nsonye)
a usoro nke ezi yiri bụ (ugboro ugboro rutile)
Single Refractive
nakwa kwuru na dị isotropic. mineral nke igosipụta otu ngwa anya Njirimara na ail ntụziaka (eg, nkume cubic usoro na amorphous onwunwe)
Snell iwu nke refraction
mgbe a ìhè ray-aga site na otu ọkara n'ime ọzọ e nwere anya ruru n'etiti enweghị nke n'akuku nke omume na-enweghị nke n'akuku nke refraction. Ihe ahụ merenụ ray, na refracted ray na nkịtị (na n'ókè nke omume) bụ ail na otu ụgbọelu. The mgbe nile ruru n'etiti n'akuku nke omume na refraction nke abụọ ọ bụla media na ngwa anya kọntaktị a na-akpọ site Snell na Refractive index (RI)
South Oké Osimiri nkume pel
ibu cultured ib, cultured na ọlaọcha-lipped pearl oysters na a dayameta nke 12 ma ọ bụ ọbụna 16mm. Ndị a nnukwu ọcha nkume pel akwụ aha South Oké Osimiri n'ihi na ha na mbụ mepụtara site na Japanese na Microne-sia na Indonesia. Taa ndị a nkume pel na-ọzọ ugboro ugboro na-emepụta Australia na Burma, na Indonesia, na Philippines, Papua New Guinea na Thailand adịrughị mkpa isi mmalite. Ka ụbọchị e nwebeghị ihe ịga nke ọma wuru ẹtọ collection nke ọla-ọcha lipped pearl oysters, nke pụtara na ọkọnọ nke nne oysters dị ụkọ na ahịa ya elu
Specific ike ndọda (SG)
SG ma ọ bụ njupụta nke otu ihe bụ oke dị n'etiti ịdị arọ nke ihe na ịdị arọ nke oke mmiri dị ọcha na 4 Celsius C (oke mmiri) na nrụgide nke ikuku. SG nwere njikọ na ngwakọta kemịkal nke ihe yana yana njikọta nke atọ na atom (dị ka a pụrụ isi kwuo ya, ọ bụghị naanị na atọmịk nke ihe dị iche iche mejupụtara ya na-emetụta ya kamakwa otu esi etinye atọm ọnụ)
Spectroscope
ngwá nke kewapuru a ray nke ìhè n'ime ya constituent wavelengths ma ọ bụ ụdịdị dị iche iche na agba site n'ọnụ a prism ma ọ bụ diffraction ji kpachie oghere. The spectroscope-enye ohere otu ịhụ nke kpọmkwem ngalaba (edoghi ma ọ bụ ìgwè ndị agha) ma ọ bụ ebe (sara mbara absorption) nke na-acha ọcha ìhè na-etinye obi gị dum site a gemstone site dispersing ma ọ bụ na-agbasa si mmapụta wavelengths nke e-ebute site ná ma ọ bụ gosipụtara si nkume n'okpuru ule (bụghị ail nkume egosi a ụdịdị dị iche iche na ọ bụghị ail spectrums hụrụ bụ diagnostic ma absorption ìgwè pụrụ igosi na agba? gị n'ụlọnga ma ọ bụ ọnụnọ nke ụfọdụ ọcha)
Splintery
ịhụ mgbaji ọkpụkpụ
Symmetry
symmetry na-ezo aka mgbe nile ma ọ bụ itule nke udi nke mkpuru ma na ihu-elu ọnọdụ na profaịlụ
Syngenetic inclusions
dịkọrọ ndụ inclusions esịnede bekee nke na-adade n'otu oge dị ka usu crystai (eg, ịnweta solids; liquids na cavities ma na-agwọ cracks; zonal ìgwè; mmiri mmiri inclusions; metụtara nke ibu dị ka agba zoning na ejima guzobere. E nwere ugboro ugboro ihe nyere iwu intergrowth n'etiti syngenetic inclusions na usu crystal mere na abụọ nwere ike ibu a bughi mmekọrịta achịkwa crystallographic iwu
Sịntetik gemstones
a sịntetik ngwaahịa nwere otu chemical mejupụtara, atọmịk Ọdịdị na anụ ahụ Njirimara dị ka ya eke counterpart (eg, sịntetik emerald, sịntetik corundum, wdg)
Mkpebi siri
mkpebi siri ma ọ bụ ike bụ ndị na-eguzogide a mkpuru ka agbasa ma ọ bụ agbajikwara. Ọ na-metụtara mineral ike banye ịtụnanya na-enweghị emeghasịkwa nke internai Ọdịdị. Okwu zutere na na nke a na-agụnye kenkuwa, sectile, nro, mgbanwe na-agbanwe
Mkpa fim
anya n'okpuru gosipụtara ìhè ndị a mkpa fim nwere iridescent ọdịdị ahụkarị nke a mkpa oyi akwa mmanụ na mmiri ma ọ bụ na multicolored elu nke a ncha afụ
Atọ na-adọ Nsonye
a mmiri mmiri-jupụta uji eze nwere afụ na a crystal
Ụda
ụda na-ezo aka ikwu lightness ma ọ bụ ọchịchịrị aghọta (ma nke a hue ma ọ bụ nke na-acha ọcha na-nwa)
Total esịtidem echiche
ngụkọta esịtidem echiche etịbe ebe a, ray nke ìhè agafe si a denser ka a rarer ọkara na n'akuku ukwuu karịa oké egwu n'akuku bụ laghachiri denser ajụ ebe ọ na-erube isi n'iwu nke echiche
Ike
ịhụ mkpebi siri
Transition ọcha
aha etinyere ụfọdụ dara ọcha nke ruru ha atọmịk Ọdịdị, mmadụ na nhọrọ absorption nke ìhè na idiochromatic na allochromatic nkume. Ha na-chrome, cobalt, ọla kọpa, vanadium, manganese, ígwè, nickel na titanium
Ebunye
ruo (eg, ìhè) site na otu ọkara ọzọ; ka O zipụ (eg, a mgbaàmà) ma ọ bụ zipu on (e..g., site onye ọzọ)
Nghọta
nnwere onwe na nke ìhè na-ebugharị ma ọ bụ ebute site ná site a nkume. The dị iche iche degrees nke nghọta na-nyere dị ka: uzo (TP) -nke uzo ihe na-egosipụta na-amịkọrọ a obere ego nke ìhè nke dara na ya, ma na-enye ohere kasị gabiga. Ihe anya site na nkume na-egosi doro anya na iche na ya. Sub-uzo (S-TP) -nke bukwanu ego nke ìhè na-ebute site ná site nkume, ma naanị na ndepụta nke ihe ihe na n'akụkụ nke ọzọ nke nkume na-apụghị ike oké. Sub-translucent (S-TL) -only a nnọọ obere ego nke ìhè nwere ike gabiga mkpuru na mkpa n'ọnụ ya. Opaque (0) -ail nke ìhè nke dara jidesie ihe opaque ihe a na ma gosipụtara ma ọ bụ etinye obi gị dum. Ọ dịghị ìhè-agabiga ihe onwunwe, ọbụna na mkpa n'ọnụ ya.
Treacle Nsonye
a okpomọkụ-efegharị efegharị ma ọ bụ roiled mmetụta-wisps na swirls nke na agba
Ejima crystal
a ejima crystal bụ a crystal nke a na-esịnede abụọ halves nke otu crystal ma ọ bụ abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa kristal nke otu umu nke nwere kpọmkwem crystallographic mmekọrịta ibe na emewo ọnụ a symmetrical n'ụzọ (lee kọntaktị ejima na interpenetrant ejima)
Abụọ na-adọ Nsonye
a mmiri mmiri-jupụta uji eze nwere afụ ma ọ bụ a crystal
Ultraviolet (UV)
ultraviolet pụtara karịrị violet. A nso nke radieshon-amalite na wavelengths na-mkpumkpu karịa 400nm nke violet ìhè
Uniaxial nkume
na hexagonal, trigonal na tetragonal crystal usoro e nwere otu optic axis (direction nke otu refraction): mineral nke ndị a na usoro a maara dị ka uniaxial (na uniaxial nkume ndị optic axis bụ ihe yiri nke isi vetikal 'c' axis)
Unit cell
unit cell nke crystal Ọdịdị nke bụ nta akụkụ nke a crystal nke ka nwere ndị e ji mara Njirimara nke crystal na-akpọ ógbè a unit cell. N'ụzọ nke ndị unit mkpụrụ ndụ na-stacked site nne ọdịdị na-ekpebi ndị mpụga ọdịdị nke crystal
Ákwà Nsonye
ịhụ nku Nsonye
Visible ìhè
anya ìhè bụ ụdị nke radiant ike nke na-enye ịrị elu nke sensashion nke n'anya. Ọ bụla wavelength nke akpa radieshon ahụ bụ mkpokọta n'etiti 400nm na 700nm bụ anya ka mmadụ anya dị ka ìhè
Vitreous
ịhụ luster
Wavelength
a wavelength a kọwarala dị ka anya n'etiti abụọ consecutive ọnụ ọnụ nke na-efegharị efegharị
Waxy
ịhụ luster
White ìhè
acha ọcha ìhè (mbuaha ìhè) na-emi esịnede ihe dị hà ngwakọta nke nile na agba ma ọ bụ wavelengths na-eme ka anya ụdịdị dị iche iche (red, oroma, odo, green, acha anụnụ anụnụ na violet). Agba nke ìhè dịgasị na-adabere n'elu wavelength. Red mmiri na ebili mmiri nwere ndị fọdụrụ n'ezinụlọ wavelengths (700 + nm) na a na-ebelatakarị site na ụdịdị dị iche iche na-Violet wavelengths, nke nwere nke kasị nso (400nm-banyere 1 / 4 ogologo nke red ụzarị)
Ohere
uzo ebe nke ala agba osisi ike mere site ìhè leakage nke kwe ndabere n'azụ nkume a na-hụrụ (na-agụ-site mmetụta)
Zircon okirikiri ọkụ n'isi
ịhụ okirikiri ọkụ n'isi Nsonye
Zonal striae
ịhụ agba ìgwè